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Chapter 25 Quizlet
Terms in this set (60)
A name for the late 1800s; coined by Mark Twain (sarcastically because of the corruption) to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
Boss Tweed (William Tweed)
Head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Brilliant feminist writer; advocated cooperative cooking and child care arrangements to promote women's economic independence and equality
Philosopher on Harvard faculty, Wrote: Principles of Psychology, The Will of to Believe, Varieties of Religious Experience, and Pragmatism; 1842-1910: Helped to express philosophy of the nation. (PRAGMATISM)
Cities in which people lived far from work and commuted via horse-drawn streetcars.
Innovative Steel-framed buildings (utilized Otis elevators, steam heating systems with radiators...etc.)
Leader in a political party who controls votes and dictates appointments
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
American architect and planner who helped bring French Baron Haussman's City Beautiful movement to the United States; Chicago World Fair
People were moving to the cites to work in factories.
Responsible for the formation of one of the first labor unions. The American Federation of Labor worked on getting people better hours and better wages. The formation of this triggered the formation of various others that would come later.
William Jennings Bryan
This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America's imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
Formed in 1892 by members of the Farmer's Alliance, this party was designed to appeal to workers in all parts of the country. Populists favored a larger role of government in American Society, a progressive income tax, and more direct methods of democracy.
An extensive, heavily populated area, containing several dense urban centers.
William Randolph Hearst
United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)
Gifted but isolated New England poet, the bulk of whose works were not published until after her death
Feminist author; wrote The Awakening (about adultery, suicide, and women's ambitions); ignored in her day but rediscovered by later readers
Vigorous nineteenth century crusader for sexual purity who used federal law to enforce his moral views
Encounters with EuropeansThe Bostonians was the first book about the rising feminist movement
Harvard educated scholar and advocate of full black social and economic equality through the leadership of a talented tenth
Henry H. Richardson
Born in Louisiana and educated at Harvard and Paris; architect, distinctive, ornamental style; style called Richardsonian; high vaulted arches; Marshall Fields in Chicago
Artist from Massachusetts who did much of his work in England; known for a portrait of his mother; dropped out of West Point after failing chemistry
American painter in Paris; painted sensitive portrayals of women and children - earned a place among French impressionist painters
Got a high degree of realism in his paintings (meaning portrait sitters got their flaws in pictures)
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
Booker T. Washington
Ex-slave; worked hard to go to school; became the head of a normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama in a really crappy shack; taught useful trades (in order to gain self-respect and economic security); believed that one should make themselves useful in order to go against white supremacy
From Massachusetts; journalist-reformer; published socialistic novel: Looking Backward in which the main character 'looks back' and sees that the government has become ideal in the year 2000 and big business became nationalized to serve public interest; clubs formed under his name and heavily influenced American reform movement at the end of the century
Wrote The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, The Innocents Abroad, and The Gilded Age; hardly had any formal schooling in Missouri; real name Samuel Langhorne Clemens; also wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; captured frontier realism and humor with American dialect
Department stores that attracted urban middle class shoppers and provided urban working class jobs, many of them for women; Macy's in New york, Marshall fields in Chicago; Macy's showed consumerism and class divisions.
Where the church take on social issues; science of society and that socialism would be the logical outcome of Christianity
Held in 1893 in Chicago; honored 400th anniversary of Columbus's first voyage; revival of classical architecture in order to celebrate
Expansion of railroads and streetcars, subways, middle-class could live somewhere nice and commute to work
Political entities controlled by a boss that wielded enormous influence over the government of urban cities.
§ Very corrupt, controlled tax rates, gave tax breaks to their allies and controlled prices and business, etc.
§ Stole millions from taxpayers using fraud and overinflation
§ Did minor philanthropy to boost their public image
§ Gave money to support businesses, immigrants, and the poor in return for their votes.
Led by Frances Willard, the WCTU (Woman's Christiam Temperance Union) was an organization of women intended to mold women into a political force. They vehemently opposed alcohol. They were largely unsuccessful in politics, however. CULTURAL & POLITICAL
Chicago architect; contributed to development of skyscrapers; "form follows function"; helped make sky scrapers popular
Carry S. Nation
"Kansas Cyclone"; 1st husband died of alcoholism and so she took a hatchet and single-handedly destroyed liquor stores
Frederic Law Olmstead
A United States landscape architect, famous for designing many well-known urban parks, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City, the country's oldest coordinated system of public parks and parkways in Buffalo, New York, the Niagara Reservation in Niagara Falls, and the landscape surrounding the United States Capitol building.
English naturalists who wrote Origin of Species; thought higher forms of life evolved from lower forms through mutation and adaptation; came up with the theory of natural selection
Oliver Wendell Holmes
A Boston essayist, poet, and physician who published his findings from a study of large numbers of cases of "puerperal fever" and concluded that the disease could be transmitted from one person to another.
Morrill Act 1862
Gave a generous grant of public land to states for education
Those who rejected Darwin's beliefs
Born in Hungary and nearly blind; leader in sensationalism; Colored comic supplements featured the "Yellow Kid" (became yellow journalism)
American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms.
14th son of a Methodist minister; wrote about underside of urban, industrial life America (Maggie: A Girl of the Streets - story of a poor prostitute who ended up committing suicide [Didn't find a publisher for this story and was published privately]; The Red Badge of Courage - Civil War Recruit under fire); died of tuberculosis
Famous for nature writing; wrote Call of the Wild and The Iron Heel
Illegal to send "obscene" material through the mail
Believed in free love; divorcee, occasional stockbroker, feminist propagandist; with her sister she published Woodhull and Claflin's Weekly; journal charged that Henry Ward Beecher (famous preacher of the time) that he was having an adulterous affair
Ida B. Wells
Journalist and teacher; inspired black women to start a nationwide antilynching crusade; helped launch black women's club movement - National Association of Colored Women
Jokes and acrobats; shows for entertainments
John Singer Sargent
American painter in England; drew flattering but superficial likeness to British nobility that made him "highly prized"
Self taught; became America's leading landscapist
Painter who was resistant against foreign influences and brought rugged realism and boldness of conception; known for paintings of the sea
John D. Rockefeller organized Standard Oil in Cleveland in 1870. Through ruthless competition and superb organization, the Standard Oil Trust controlled 90 percent of oil refining in the United States by 1879.
Controversial reformer whose book Progress and Poverty advocated solving problems of economic inequality by a tax on land
Knights of Labor
This group, which peaked membership in 1886, grew rapidly because of a combination of their open-membership policy, the continuing industrialization of the American economy, and the growth of urban population;
welcomed unskilled and semiskilled workers, including women, immigratns, and African Americans;
were idealists who believed they could eliminate conflict between labor and managements. Their goal was to create a cooperative society in which laborers owned the industries in which they worked.
Five Point, Manhattan
Neighborhood in central lower Manhattan in New York City; Centre Street, The Bowery, Canal Street, & Park Row; gained international notoriety as a disease-ridden, crime-infested slum that existed for well over 70 years
Barnhum & Bailey's Circus
James A. Bailey, was an American showman who is best remembered for his entertaining hoaxes and for founding the circus that eventually became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. He was a businessman above all else, his profession was pure entertainment,
Gospel of Wealth
Essay written by Andrew Carnegie.
-Promoted Social Darwinism
-Wealth among the few was the natural and most efficient result of capitalism
-Great wealth brought responsibility
AFL (American Fed of Labor)
American Federation of Labor. A union of skilled workers from one or more trades which focused on collective bargaining (negotiation between labor and management) to reach written agreements on wages hours and working conditions. The AFL used strikes as a major tactic to win higher wages and shorter work weeks.
Cross of Gold
Famous speech given by William Jennings Bryan; in support of bimetalism, Bryan spoke of the gold standard as a burden (like the cross)