CP1 Chemistry Chapter 4

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physical state
the condition of matter existing as a solid, liquid, or gas
sublimation
a direct change of state from a solid to a gas
deposition
a direct change of state from a gas to a solid
heterogeneous mixture
matter having an indefinite composition and variable properties
homogeneous mixture
matter having a definite composition, but variable properties from sample to sample; for example, alloys and solutions
substance
matter having a definite composition and constant properties; for example, an element or compound
alloy
a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals
compound
a substance that can be broken down into simpler substances
element
a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical reaction
atom
the smallest particle that represents an element
chemical symbol
an abbreviation for the name of an element
metal
a high density element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity
malleable
the property of a metal that allows it to be machined into a foil
ductile
the property of a metal that allows it to be drawn into a wire
nonmetal
an element that has a low melting point and is not a good conductor
semimetal
an element that has properties midway between those of a metal and a nonmetal
atomic number
a number that identifies a particular element
periodic table
a chart that arranges elements according to their properties
law of definite composition
the principle that a compound always contains the same mass of ratio of elements
molecule
a single particle composed of two or more nonmetal atoms
chemical formula
an abbreviation for the name of a compound
physical property
a property that can be observed without changing the formula of a substance
chemical property
a property that cannot be observed without changing the formula of a substance
chemical change
a modification of a substance that alters the chemical composition
physical change
a modification of a substance that does not alter the chemical composition
potential energy
the stored energy that matter possesses owing to its position or composition
kinetic energy
the energy associated with the mass and velocity of a particle
law of conservation of mass
the law that states mass cannot be created or destroyed
law of conservation of energy
the law that states energy cannot be created or destroyed
law of conservation of mass and energy
the law that states the total mass and energy is constant