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96 terms

Science Mid Term Exam

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What was Alfred Wegeners hypothesis
Continental Drift
How many landmasses did the continents once form?
One
What was the hypothesis that happened to all the continents?
They broke up and drifted to their current locations
How did fossils support Wageners theory?
It explains why animals and species are on opposite sides of the ocean.
What are three kinds of evidence that support the theory?
1.Fossils
2.Rock
3.Climate conditions
What was the name of the landmass that contained all continents?
Pangea
Sea Floor Spreading
Process of forming new oceanic lithosphere as magma rises to the surface
Mid Ocean Ridges
Areas where sea floor spreading takes place
Magnetic Reversal
Process that happens when Earths magnetic poles change place
Continental Drift
The theory that explains how continents reached their current locations
The theory that Earth is divided into places that move around
Plate tectonics
The place where tectonic plates touch
Tectonic boundary
Three types of tectonic plate boundaries
1. Convergent Boundary
2.Divergent Boundary
3.Transform boundary
The three ways tectonic plates can move relative to each other
Collide, Separate, Slide
Boundary formed when tectonic plates collide
Convergent boundary
Boundary formed when tectonic plates separate
Divergent boundary
Boundary formed when tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally
Transform Boundary
What type of boundary makes an earthquake
Transform Boundary
When rock is heated, it becomes less dense and tends to ______
rise
When rock cools, it becomes more dense and tends to ___________
sink below the surface
Density changes in the asthenosphere are caused by the flow of _______ energy from deep within the Earth.
thermal
Plate motion due to higher densities
Slab pull
Plate motion due to gravity
Ridge push
Plate motion due to the heating cooling of rocks
Convection
Tectonic plates move _______ per year
centimeters
What do scientists use to measure the rate of tectonic plate movement
The global positioning system
What is the amount of force placed on a given material called
stress
What is the name of the process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress?
deformation
What is it called when stress squeezes an object?
Compression
What is it called when stress stretches an object?
Tension
What can form when compression squeezes rocks at a convergent place boundary?
Large mountains can form
What type of stress occurs at a divergent boundary
Tension occurs
The bending of rock layers due to stress is known as
folding
When rock layers break the resulting surfaces they break and slide on is a
fold
When tension pulls rocks apart, it creates a
normal fault
When compression pushes rocks together it creates a
reverse fault
What is created when opposing forces causes rock to break and move horizontally
strike slip fault
When tectonic plates collide, folds ad faults can become
mountain ranges
What type of mountain range is formed when tension causes large blocks of crust to drop down?
Fault Block mountains
What kind of mountain is formed when magma rises to the surface and erupts
Volcanic Mountains
Appalachian Mountains are
folded mountains
Tetons are
fault block mountains
Ring of Fire is
Volcanic mountains
Tectonic Plates consist of
both continental and oceanic crust
The deep interior of the earth can be mapped using
seismic waves
New oceanic lithosphere forms as a result of
sea floor spreading
A result of plates moving along a transform boundary is
earthquakes
The process of sea floor spreading produces what physical feature
mid ocean ridge
The process of subduction produces what physical feature
trenches
When two plates of continental lithosphere collide, they form _______
mountains
At a transform boundary, what physical feature is evident
Fracture Zone
Mantle
They layer of rock that comprises 67% of Earth's mass
Core
The layer of earth made mostly of iron
Crust
The thin and solid outermost layer above the mantle
Lithosphere
The rigid layer made up of crust and upper mantle
Asthenosphere
The layer made of solid rock that slowly flows
Continental Drift
Hypothesis that states that the continents were once one large mass that broke apart
Sea floor spreading
Process that takes place at mid ocean ridges
Magnetic Minerals
part of molten rock at mid ocean ridges
Magnetic reversal
process of Earths magnetic poles changing places
Fossils
Items that provide evidence that the continent were once closer together
Convergent Boundary
Where two plates collide
Divergent Boundary
Where two plates are moving away from each other
Transform Boundary
Where two plates are moving horizontally past each other
Convection
The process of moving layers of rock heating and cooling
Subduction Zone
Where denser oceanic lithosphere sinks beneath continental lithosphere
How does the chemical composition of the different layers (crust, mantle, and core) vary
They have different densities
-The core being most dense, crust being least
-Core has lots of iron making it dense
How is the magnetic field of the earth produced
By the magnetic poles when they revers our compasses are then read opposite
What are magnetic Stripes
-Have minerals in them
-When it moves it is recorded
-It proves SFS
What causes weather
Sun
What are the various aspects of weather
There is natural conditions
Disconformity
a missing layer of rock
relative dating
the process of figuring out if an object is older or younger than another
superposition
the idea that younger rocks lie on top of older rocks
unconformity
a break in the geologic record
angular uncomformity
the process of wearing down a missing layer that exists between horizontal and folded rock layers
How are rock layers arranges in the geologic column
oldest rocks are on the bottom, youngest are on the top
How does a geologist know that rock layers are undisturbed
Rock layers are horizontal
What is a fault?
a break in the earths crust
What is the most common type of unconformity
a disconformity
What causes all weather
the sun
How are trade winds formed bases on convection and the difference in air pressure
The earths rotation and air pressure is involved when the low pressure has high pressure pushing against it, making it form wind.
How is differences in heating of land and water as well as difference in pressure cause the breezes to form
A sea breeze is a breeze coming from the sea, which makes the water cooler, the high pressure sinks then heats the land, then rises again. The land heats faster because the sun only has to hear the top surface and the water moves, making it harder to heat.
When changes in pressure, temperature, or chemical make up alter a rock, _________ takes place
metamorphism
Two minerals that may be left behind when a body of salt water evaporates
Gypsum and Halite
Gemstones such as topaz may form in teardrop shaped bodies called
pegmatites
Two minerals that crystallize out of ground water that has been heated by magma
Gold and Copper
What are three types of rocks
1. Igneous
2. Metamorphic
3. Sedimentary
Seven Layers of the Rock Cycle
1. Weathering and erosion
2. Deposition
3. Compaction
4. Heat and Pressure
5. Melting
6. Cooling
7. Solidifying
How is Igneous rock formed
When magma rises towards the surface and cools
How does metamorphic rock formed
When heat and pressure is applied to sedimentary and igneous rock
How is sedimentary rock formed
When compacting of existing rocks they are weathered and eroded into tiny particles, then are pressured which creates rock
Two major causes of mass extinction
1. Mass weather change
2. Meteorite
What are two things that makes different minerals unique?
Composition- shape, color, etc
Place of origin
Tectonic Plates float on
the asthenosphere
Crust moves sideways because of
convection