44 terms

Biology Chapter 2-5 Ecology 9th Grade Study Guide

Biotic factor
living factor
Abiotic Factor
nonliving factor
all the strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment, how it meets its specific needs for food and shelter, how and where it survives, and where it reproduces.
is the place where an organism lives out its life.
group of organisms, which are all the same species and interbreed and live in the same area.
interacting populations in a certain area.
food chain
simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem.
food web
model that shows all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community
An organism that uses light energy stored in chemical compounds to make energy-rich compounds, the ultimate energy source for this organism is the sun.
An organism that can't make its own food and feeds on other organisms.
both species benefit from the relationship
one species benefits while the other is neither harmed nor benefit from the relationship.
one species benefits as the expense of the other species that is harmed from the relationship
the sea anemones and hermit crab; the sea anemones give protection to the crab using its stinging cells, and it remolds its shell to fit the crab while the hermit crab allows the sea anemones to consume the remains of its food, thus it also provides the sea anemones with food supply, which makes it a relationship beneficial to both.
Starlings and other birds are often seen feeding on insects amid cattle in the pasture. The feeding cattle stir up the insects and the birds catch them. This helps the birds and doesn't affect the cattle.
tick and dog, the tick feeds on the dog's blood, while the dog is harmed from the tick
Primary succession
process in which the 1st groups of organisms colonize a barren landscape
Secondary succession
series of community changes that take place on a previously colonized, but disturbed or damaged habitat
What are usually the 1st organisms to emerge from a barren area?
system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment.
Exponential growth
Increasing unlimited growth
Linear growth
growth at a constant pace
Slow life-history patterns
these patterns are common among organisms that live in stable environments, these organisms typically reproduce and mature slowly, and are long- lived. Ex: Humans, elephants, bears
Rapid life-history patterns
these patterns are common among organisms from changing environments. These organisms typically are small, mature fast, reproduce early, and have a short life span. Ex: mosquitoes
Density-dependent factors
these factors have a greater effect as the population grows. Ex: disease, competition, predators, and food.
Density-independent factors
these factors affect populations regardless of their size. Ex: floods, fires, volcano eruptions, drought, pesticides
How can food supply affect the carrying capacity of a habitat?
Typically, a population grows exponentially, overshoots the carrying capacity, limiting factors bring it back down, and then the population fluctuates around its carrying capacity.
What is the relationship between limiting factors and carrying capacity?
Limiting factors, such as availability of food, disease, predators, or lack of space, will cause population growth to slow, because the carrying capacity of the habitat has been reached.
How do birthrate and death rate each affect the growth of a population?
Unless the PGR becomes negative (everywhere) the population continues to grow. When the birthrate is higher than the death rate, the population will increase. When the population's death rate is larger than the birthrate, the population will decrease.
Why is biodiversity important?
It is important because it brings stability; Ecosystems are stable if their biodiversity is maintained.
variety of species in a specific area
Explain how land that gets broken up can contribute to loss of species diversity.
This can contribute to: Increased extinction of local species. Disruption of ecological processes. New opportunities for invasions by other species, Increased risk of fire. Changes in local climate.
Habitat fragmentation
separation of wilderness areas from other areas.
Edge Effect
the areas where one habitat or ecosystem meets another. Ex: Where water meets land
Explain how change in an ecosystem's edges can affect organisms.
when it changes, animals from one area might migrate into another, thereby bringing species from different ecosystems in contact with one another.
How can exotic species affect populations of native species?
These species are species that are introduced on purpose or by accident to a new area. When this happens, they can grow exponentially and can cause serious harm to native species in this area.
Conservation biology
is the study and implementation of methods to protect biodiversity
is the study of the relationships between organisms and their environments.
How does the US endangered Species Act help to protect or preserve endangered species?
US Endangered Species Act became law in 1973. It made it illegal to harm any species on the endangered or threatened list, and made it illegal for federal agencies to fund any project that would harm organisms on there lists.
How can habitat degradation cause changes in an area's biodiversity?
It is the damage to a habitat by pollution. Ex: Air, water, and land pollution, acid precipitation, UV waves. It limits or eliminates resources for species that exist in the ecosystem.
Draw and label a pyramid that includes a mice, grass, snakes, fox, 2nd order heterotrophs, autotrophs, 1st order heterotrophs, 3rd order heterotrophs.
grass- autotroph
mice-1st order heterotrophs
snake-2nd order heterotrophs
fox-3rd order heterotrophs
Carrying capacity
is the number of organisms of one species that an area can support