APUSH Chapter 7
Terms in this set (48)
Judith Sergent Murray
published an essay defending the right of women to education, and arguing that men and women were equal in intellectual potential. Also, she believed that women should have opportunities to earn their own livings and establish roles for themselves in society, apart form their husbands and families.
the name that Jefferson and his followers used for Native Americans, meaning uncivilized, but not necessarily uncivilizable, and that through educating them in white culture, the tribes would be uplifted.
Connecticut school master and lawyer; wrote many American dictionaries, argued that school boys should be educated as a nationalist, remembering the revolution and all historical aspects of his country.
was a successful author, whose popular folk tales, recounting the adventures of such American rustics as Ichabod Crane and Rip Van Winkle, making him the leader of American literary life in the early 18th century.
a religious philosophy developed in the Enlightenment, accepting the existence of God, but considering Him a remote building who, after having created the universe, was no longer directly involved with the human race and its sins.
Second Great Awakening
when many people of traditional faiths became confused by the religious skepticism, traditional religion staged a dramatic comeback, in this wave of revivalism. Many of these religions tried to fight the spread of religious rationalism, by building up their churches. Presbyterians expanded to the west, Methodist popularity spread all throughout the country, and Baptist were successful in the south.
the first took place at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, was a staple of the Second Great Awakening; were fervent religious revivals that lasted several days and were characterized by great outpourings of religious emotion.
brother of a black preacher developed a plan of slave rebellion and attack in Richmond, during a black revival meeting in Virginia. The plan was discovered and foiled by whites, but revivalism continued in the next few years, creating racial unrest in the south.
a Seneca, who led the most important revivalism among Native Americans, had a miraculous rebirth after years of alcoholism helped give him a special stature with his tribe. His message, which mostly spread to the remaining Iroquois, said that Native Americans should give up the nasty customs they developed from white culture, and restore the quality of the Indian world.
used the knowledge he had acquired (smuggled) before leaving England to build a spinning mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, for the Quaker merchant Moses Brown in 1790.
Eli Whitney/ Cotton Gin
in 1793, he invented a machine that performed the arduous task of removing the seeds from short- staple cotton quickly and effectively, its name also meant engine, and with the device a single operator could clean as much cotton in a few hours as a group of workers had once needed a whole day to do, causing cotton growing to spread throughout the south.(increased Demand for slavery, also did 1000 muskets for army, interchangeable parts)
Robert Fulton & Robert R. Livingston/ the Clermont
inventor and promoter, made significant advances in steam powered navigation, which made possible the launching of a steamboat large enough to carry passengers, the original was equipped with paddle wheels and an English built engine, and sailed up the Hudson in the summer of 1807.
The turnpike era
during the year of 1794, a corporation constructed a toll road running the 60 miles from Philadelphia to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, with a hard packed surface of crushed stone, which provided a good, well drained surface good for transportation. (way to fund internal improvements)
designed the capital on a grand scale, as many Americans believed that Washington would be a majestic city like Paris, but truthfully it never compared to other major cities of the nation, like NY, and Philadelphia.
when Jefferson expended all internal taxes, he drastically reduced government spending, a plan that did not retire national debt, but did cut it almost in half.
Pasha of Tripoli
in 1801, forced Jefferson to pay the protection money that they wanted, by capturing many American Naval forces, after chopping down the American flag (symbol of war), and forcing the U.S. to pay Tripoli a humiliating and substantial ransom for American prisoners.
Marbury v. Madison
this was the first time the Court had refused to declare a congressional act unconstitutional. William Marbury, one of Adams' midnight appointments had earned a commission for being justice of the peace in the District of Columbia, but it was not delivered to him before Adams left office, and when Jefferson took office, his secretary of state, James Madison, refused to hand over the commission. Marbury tried to get the Supreme Court to force Madison to deliver it, but the declared that they didn't have the authority to. (judicial review)
Treaty of San Idlefonso
a secret treaty, in which Napoleon gained the lands west of the Mississippi, which belonged to Spain, for France, and showed the imperial ambitions that France and Napoleon had in America.
The Louisianna Purchanse
when Jefferson faced a dilemma of starting war with France or ignoring westerners demands to reopen the Mississippi River, he sent Robert Livingston as an ambassador, to Paris in order to negotiate for the purchase of New Orleans, and ended up proposing that the French sell the U.S. all of the Louisiana Territory, something Napoleon eventually did when his plans in America didn't go as planned. The treaty made the U.S. pay a total of 80 million francs (15mil dollars) to the French government, and Louisiana had to become part of the Union, along with its people.
Lewis and Clark
a veteran of Indian wars, skilled in ways of the wilderness, and an experienced frontiersman and Indian fighter, along with 4 dozen men, traveled with Shoshone woman, Sacajawea as their interpreter, crossed the Rocky Mountains and camped on the Pacific Coast.
one of the men assisting on the Lewis and Clark journey, 26 years old, led an expedition in the fall of 1805 from St. Louis into the upper Mississippi Valley, then later up the valley of the Arkansas River and later into Colorado, his account of the lands led Americans to think that this area was a vast land of desert that couldn't be cultivate.
a group of the most extreme Federalists, in Massachusetts, were angry about the increased number of states and decrease of Federalist power in them, concluded that the only recourse for New England was to secede from the Union and form a separate northern confederacy, but many believed it would only survive if New York and New Jersey joined.
James Wilkinson and Aarron Burr
there were rumors before Burr's duel with Hamilton that these two were going to lead an expedition to capture Mexico from the Spanish and secede the Southwest, making a new empire that Burr would rule.
Alexander Hamilton and Aarron Burr
when Federalists chose Burr as the candidate for governor of New York, Hamilton who opposed the secession of New England and New York, spread malicious rumors about Burr. When Burr lost the election, he vindictively challenged Hamilton to a duel, in which he killed Hamilton and had to flee from charges of murder. Burr was acquitted of treason
after being defeated by the British at sea, Napoleon used this to pressure them in other ways, and this was designed to close the European continent to British trade, by preventing any ship from stopping at one of their ports. (actually heart french more than british)
Chesapeake- Leonard Incident
An American naval frigate, the Chesapeake, sailed from Norfolk and was hailed by the British ship the Leopard, when the American commander James Barron refused to allow the British navy to search the ship, the British opened fire on the Chesapeake, and forced them to surrender, taking four sailors (one hanged). When the news reached the Americans they were outraged, but Jefferson managed to prevent war with Britain.
Embargo Peacable Coercion
To prevent war, Jefferson enacted an Embargo, which prevented any American ships from taking port in any other country in the world, causing depression in the Northeast (ship-owners). A few days before Jefferson left office, as Madison was replacing him, he backed down and approved a bill, which ended the embargo, or what he called his experiment with peaceable coercion.
Non- Intercourse Act
This replaced the embargo just before Madison took office, which reopened trade with all nations but Great Britain and France, and lasted one year.
Macon's Bill No. 1
when the Non- Intercourse Act expired, this replaced it, which reopened free commercial relations with Britain and France, but gave the president to close it off if the trading prohibited American neutrality.
William Henry Harrison
a Virginia-born, already a veteran Indian fighter, went to Washington as the delegate from the Northwest territory in 1799, he was a fierce advocate of development in the western lands, and was largely responsible for tricking Indians into transferring their lands to white men.
passed in 1800 by William Henry Harrison; this enabled white settlers to acquire farms from the public domain on much easier terms than before.
a charismatic religious leader and orator of the Native Americans, he experienced a mystical awakening in the process of recovering from alcoholism, and inspired a religious revival that spread throughout tribes and helped unite them, even militarily. He believed that Indian civilizations had superior virtues to those of the sinful and corrupt.
brother of the Prophet, chief of the Shawnees, as the leader of the Indian military efforts, he realized that they could only defeat the whites and take back the Northwest if they united, so he set out down the Mississippi river to visit tribes and persuade them to join him in the Tecumseh confederacy and battle the whites who had wrongly taken their land through treaties.
Battle of Tippecanoe
When Tecumseh had left to recruit more tribes into his alliance, Governor Harrison, who saw the moment to destroy the growing influence of the two Indian leaders. With 1,000 soldiers he camped near prophets town and provoked an armed conflict in which he drove off the Indians and burned the town. The battle caused division in Tecumseh's confederacy, but many warriors were still eager for combat, and during the spring of 1812, they were active along the frontier, raiding white settlements and terrifying settlers.
determined congressmen, who gave, the Americans on the northern and southern borders that were eager to fight Britain, their support
elected speaker of the house in 1811, from Kentucky, he was one of the most influential representatives that believed in war with Britain, and agitated the conquest of Canada, which eventually led to Madison declaring war.
John C. Calhoun
one of the men of great intellect, magnetism and ambition, he was a supporter of war with Great Britain, and along with Clay, who appointed him to the Committee of Foreign affairs, he helped influence Madison to back down and declare war with Britain.
The War of 1812-1814
At first, Britain did not want an open conflict with the United States, but as Napoleon was making many mistakes in Europe, and the French empire was deteriorating, and Britain was able to turn its attention to America. First, in the summer of 1812, American forces invaded Canada through Detroit and soon had to retreat; surrendering a fort here and in what was later Chicago, to an Indian attack. Meanwhile, Americans were winning a few victories over the British, but eventually they were driven back and the British set up a blockade.
Oliver Hazard Perry/ Put-in Bay
engaged and dispersed a British fleet here on September 10, 1813, allowing the Americans to take control of another Great Lake, Lake Erie.
Battle of the Thames
William Henry Harrison pushed up the river Thames into Upper Canada and on October 4, 1813, won a victory notable for the death of Tecumseh, who was serving as a brigadier general in the British army. This battle resulted in no lasting occupation of Canada, but weakened and disheartened the Indians of the Northwest.
Andrew Jackson/ Battle of Horseshoe Bend
a wealthy Tennessee planter and a general in the state militia, set off in pursuit of the Creeks (Indians in the south west who were being supplied by Spaniards in Florida). On March 27, 1814, Jackson's men took terrible revenge on the Indians, slaughtering women and children along with warriors, and the tribe ceded most of its lands to the U.S. and retreated westward. ( increased Jackson's popularity)
Francis Scott Key
when the British couldn't reach the Fort McHenry, because of a blockade, they had to bombard it from a distance.Throughout the night and early morning, Key, a Washington lawyer aboard one of the British ships, watched as the flag and fort still withheld the British fire, and with pride wrote a poem, the Star- Spangled Banner (later the national anthem).
Battle of Plattsburg
American forces repelled another British invasion in northern New York, on September 11, 1814, when they turned back a much more numerous British naval and land force.
Battle of New Orleans
An array of battle- hardened British veterans below New Orleans prepared to advance north up the Mississippi, awaiting them were Andrew Jackson and a collection of many well protected men. The British were no match for them and were brutally defeated, leaving 7000 dead and 1,400 wounded. Later news arrived that the United States and Britain had signed a peace treaty several weeks before the battle of New Orleans. (helped by Jean la fitte)
from New Hampshire, lead the Federalists opposition in congress, causing the Republicans many problems in dealing with the war.
when Federalists became a minority, in all states except New England, ideas of secession reached a climax and delegates from all New England States met in Hartford, Connecticut, December 15, 1814, to discuss grievances against the Madison administration. There ideas of secession became irrelevant when news of a peace treaty and victory in New Orleans reached the states.
Treaty of Ghent
American and British diplomats met in Ghent, Belgium, where both sides began with extravagant demands, but the final treaty changed very little except end the fighting itself. The Americans gave up their demands for the end of British impressments, and Canada, while the British abandoned their call for the creation of an Indian buffer state in the Northwest and made other, minor territorial concessions; the final treaty was signed Christmas Eve, 1814.
Rush- Baggot Agreement
another settlement, following the Treaty of Ghent, provided for the mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes; eventually making the Canadian- American boundary the longest "unguarded frontier" in the world.
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