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103 terms

Paramedic Care Volume 1 Chapter 9 General Principles of Pharmacology

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drug
chemical used to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease.
pharmacology
the study of drugs and their interactions with the body.
assay
test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory.
bioequivalence
relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs.
bioassay
test to ascertain a drug's availability in a biological model.
dose packaging
medication packages contain a single dose for a single patient.
teratogenic drug
medication that may deform or kill the fetus.
free drug availability
preparation of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects.
pharmacokinetics
how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized (biotransformed), and excreted; how drugs are transported into and out of the body.
pharmoacodynamics
how a drug interacts with the body to cause it effects.
active transport
requires the use of energy to move a substance.
carrier-mediated diffusion or facilitated diffusion
process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane.
passive transport
movement of a substance without the use of energy.
diffusion
movement of solute in a solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis
movement of solvent in a solution from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
filtration
movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
ionize
to beome electrically charged or polar.
bioavailability
amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches its target tissue.
blood-brain barrier
tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in the central nervous system vasculature through which only non-protein-bound, highly lipid-soluble drugs can pass.
placental barrier
biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules.
metabolism
the body's breaking down chemicals into different chemicals.
biotransformation
special name given to the metabolism of drugs.
prodrug (parent drug)
medication that is not active when administered, but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites.
first-pass effect
the liver's partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation.
oxidation
the loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom. This increases the positive charge (or lessens the negative charge) on the molecule.
hydrolysis
the breakage of a chemical bond by adding water, or by incorporating a hydroxyl (OH-) group into one fragment and a hydrogen ion (H+) into the other.
parenteral route
delivery of a medication outside of the gastrointestinal tract, typically using needles to inject medications into the circulatory system or tissues.
enteral route
delivery of a medication through the gastrointestinal tract.
receptor
specialized protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical effect.
affinity
force of attraction between a drug and a receptor.
efficacy
a drug's ability to cause the expected response.
second messenger
chemical that participates in complex cascading reactions that eventually cause a drug's desired effect.
down-regulation
binding of a drug or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of receptors to decrease.
up-regulation
a drug causes the formation of more receptors than normal.
agonist
drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response.
antagonist
drug that binds to a receptor but does not cause it to intitiate the expected response.
agonist-antagost (partial agonist)
drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others.
competitive antagonism
one drug binds to a receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor.
noncompetitive antagonism
the binding of an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and binding.
irreversible antagonism
a competitive antagonist permanently binds witha receptor site.
side effect
unintended response to a drug.
drug-response relationship
correlation of different amounts of a drug to clinical response.
plasma-level profile
describes the lengths of onset, duration, and termination of action, as well as the drug's minimum effective concentration and toxic levels.
onset of action
the time from adminstration until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration.
minimum effective concentration
minimum level of drug needed to cause a given effect.
duration of action
length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration.
termination of action
time from when the drug's level drops below its minimum effective concentration until it is eliminated from the body.
therapeutic index
ratio of a drug's lethal dose for 50 percent of the population to its effective dose for 50 percent of the population.
biologic half-life
time the body takes to clear one half of a drug.
prototype
drug that best demonstrates the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics.
analgesic
medication that relieves the sensation of pain.
analgesia
the absence of the sensation of pain.
anesthesia
the absence of all sensations.
adjunct medication
agent that enhances the effects of other drugs.
anesthetic
medication that induces a loss of sensation to touch or pain.
neuroleptanesthesia
anasthesia that combines decreased sensation of pain with amnesia while the patient remains conscious.
sedation
state of decreased anxiety and inhibitions.
hypnosis
instigation of sleep.
psychotherapeutic medication
drug used to treat mental dysfunction.
extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)
common side effects of antipsychotic medications, including muscle tremors and parkinonism-like effects.
EPS
extrapyramidal symptoms
neuroleptic
antipsychotic (literally, affecting the nerves.)
autonomic nervous system
the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions.
autonomic ganglia
groups of autonomic nerve cells located outside the central nervous system.
preganglionic nerves
nerve fibers that extend from the central nervous system to the autonomic ganglia.
postganglionic nerves
nerve fibers that extend from the autonomic ganglia to the target tissues.
synapse
space betwee nerve cells
neuroeffector junction
specialized synapse between a nerve cell and the organ or tissue it innervates.
neurotransmitter
chemical messenger that conducts a nervous impulse across a synapse.
nueron
nerve cell.
cholinergic
pertaining to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
adrenergic
pertaining to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
parasympathomimetic
drug or other substance that causes effects like those of the parasympathetic nervous system. Also called cholinergic.
parasympatholytic
drug or other substance that blocks or inhibits the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. Also called anticholinergic.
sympathomimetic
drug or other substance that causes effects like those of the sympathetic nervous system (also called adrenergic).
sympatholytic
drug or other substance that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system (also called antiadrenergic).
antidysrhythmic
drug used to treat and prevent abnormal cardiac rhythms.
antihypertensive
drug used to treat hypertension.
diuretic
drug used to reduce circulating blood volume by increasing the amount of urine.
hemostasis
the stoppage of bleeding.
antiplatelet
drug that decreases the formation of platelet plugs.
anticoagulant
drug that interrupts the clotting cascade.
fibrinolytic
drug that acts directly on thrombi to break them down; also called thrombolytic.
thrombolytic
fibrinolytic
anithypertipidemic
drug used to treat high blood cholesterol.
leukotriene
mediator released from mast cells upon contact with allergens.
antihistamine
medication that arrests the effects of histamine by blocking its receptors.
histamine
an endogenous substance that affects a wide variety of organ systems.
antitussive
medication that suppresses the stimulus to cough in the central nervous system.
expectorant
medication inteded to increase the productivity of cought.
mucolytic
medication intended to make mucus more watery.
antacid
alkalotic compound used to increase the gastic environment's pH.
laxative
medication used to decrease stool's firmness and increase its water content.
surfactant
substance that decreases surface tension.
antiemetic
medications used to prevent vomiting.
insulin
substance that decrease blood glucose level.
glucagon
substance that increases blood glucose level.
antineoplastic agent
drug used to treat cancer.
antibiotic
agent that kills or decreases the growth of bacteria.
pathogen
disease-causing organism.
immunity
the body's ability to respond to the presence of a pathogen.
serum
solution containing whole antibodies for a specificpathogen.
vaccine
solution containing a modified pathogen that does not actually cause disease but still stimulates the development of anitbodies specific to it.