Create an account
test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory.
free drug availability
preparation of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects.
how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized (biotransformed), and excreted; how drugs are transported into and out of the body.
carrier-mediated diffusion or facilitated diffusion
process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane.
movement of solute in a solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
movement of solvent in a solution from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
tight junctions of the capillary endothelial cells in the central nervous system vasculature through which only non-protein-bound, highly lipid-soluble drugs can pass.
biochemical barrier at the maternal/fetal interface that restricts certain molecules.
prodrug (parent drug)
medication that is not active when administered, but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites.
the liver's partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation.
the loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom. This increases the positive charge (or lessens the negative charge) on the molecule.
the breakage of a chemical bond by adding water, or by incorporating a hydroxyl (OH-) group into one fragment and a hydrogen ion (H+) into the other.
delivery of a medication outside of the gastrointestinal tract, typically using needles to inject medications into the circulatory system or tissues.
chemical that participates in complex cascading reactions that eventually cause a drug's desired effect.
binding of a drug or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of receptors to decrease.
agonist-antagost (partial agonist)
drug that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others.
one drug binds to a receptor and causes the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor.
the binding of an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and binding.
describes the lengths of onset, duration, and termination of action, as well as the drug's minimum effective concentration and toxic levels.
onset of action
the time from adminstration until a medication reaches its minimum effective concentration.
duration of action
length of time the amount of drug remains above its minimum effective concentration.
termination of action
time from when the drug's level drops below its minimum effective concentration until it is eliminated from the body.
ratio of a drug's lethal dose for 50 percent of the population to its effective dose for 50 percent of the population.
drug that best demonstrates the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics.
anasthesia that combines decreased sensation of pain with amnesia while the patient remains conscious.
extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)
common side effects of antipsychotic medications, including muscle tremors and parkinonism-like effects.
nerve fibers that extend from the central nervous system to the autonomic ganglia.
specialized synapse between a nerve cell and the organ or tissue it innervates.
drug or other substance that causes effects like those of the parasympathetic nervous system. Also called cholinergic.
drug or other substance that blocks or inhibits the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. Also called anticholinergic.
drug or other substance that causes effects like those of the sympathetic nervous system (also called adrenergic).
drug or other substance that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system (also called antiadrenergic).
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together