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30 terms

Chapter 9 Heat and Heat Technology Vocab

Vocabulary cards
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Temperature
A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object.
Thermal Expansion
The increase in volume of a substance due to an increase in temperature.
Absolute Zero
The lowest temperature on the Kelvin scale is O K.
Heat
The transfer of energy between objects that are at different temperatures.
Thermal Energy
The total kinetic energy of the particles that make up a substance.
Thermal Equilibrium
The point when both objects reach the same temperature.
Conduction
The transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact.
Conductors
Substances that conduct thermal energy very well.
Insulators
Substances that do not conduct thermal energy very well.
Convection
The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a liquid or a gas.
Radiation
The transfer of energy through matter or space as electromagnetic waves.
Thermal Conductivity
The rate at which a substance conducts thermal energy.
Specific Heat Capacity
The amount of energy needed to change the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1° C.
Calorimeter
Is used to find the specific heat capacity of a substance.
States of Matter
The physical forms in which a substance can exist.
Change of State
The conversion of a substance from one physical form to another.
Freezing
Liquid to solid
Melting
Solid to liquid
Boiling
Liquid to gas
Condensing
Gas to liquid
Steam-Heating System
Is similar to a hot-water heating system, except that steam is used.
Insulation
A substance that reduces the transfer of thermal energy.
Passive solar heating systems
DO NOT have moving parts. They rely on a building's design and parts.
Active solar heating systems
Do have moving parts. They use pumps and fans to distribute energy throughout the building.
Heat Engine
A machine that uses heat to do work.
Combustion
Process of how engines burn fuel.
External combustion engines
Heat engines that burn fuel outside the engine.
Internal combustion engines
Heat engines that burn fuel inside the engines.
Thermal Pollution
The excessive heating of a body of water.
Chemical Changes
Can cause thermal energy to be absorbed or released.