PSYCHO BIO- TERMS 1
Terms in this set (137)
the correlation of bumps on the skull with personal traits; functions may be localized in the brain (Gall)
Using all parts of brain at once
a point of communication between two neurons
Mind and brain are separate; One can exist without the other
Mind and body are single substance
maintains that the body is mechanical and the mind is neither physical nor suited to scientific observation
the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus
a thin, pliable sheet or layer of animal or vegetable tissue, serving to line an organ, connect parts, etc
a central part of a cell
responsible for making protein
an organelle in the cytoplasm of cells that functions in energy production- ATP
The portion of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus but does not incorporate the dendrites or axon
a cell or tissue that gives rise to a variant, specialized, or more mature form
Afferent part of the neuron that is specialized for receiving information
part of neuron that carries info to other locations
-Synthesis and storage in presynaptic neuron
-Released by presynaptic axon terminal
-Produces response in postsynaptic cell
Where action potentials originate
a fatty tissue that surrounds axons, providing electrical insulation and support; secreted by glial cells
the ends of the dendrites that release the chemical neurotransmitter across the gap between two neurons, to another neuron.
Moves 3 Na+ outside for every 2 K+ inside
The potential inside a cell membrane measured relative to the fluid just outside; it is negative under resting conditions and becomes positive during an action potential
a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
a membrane that allows ions to pass through it by diffusion and occasionally specialized "facilitated diffusion," along with other types of passive transport and active transport
excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) produce this
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) produce this
the point at which a stimulus is of sufficient intensity to begin to produce an effect
have recognition sites located on the ion channel
A recognition site extends into the extracellular fluid, and a special protein called a G protein is located on the receptor's intracellular side.
any of various biogenic amine neurotransmitters having a single amino group (serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.)
an essential amino acid released from proteins by tryptic digestion and a precursor of serotonin
molecules that relay signals received at receptors on the cell surface — such as the arrival of protein hormones, growth factors, etc. — to target molecules in the cytosol and/or nucleus.
any substance that mimics or enhances the effect of a neurotransmitter
any substance that reduces the effect of a neurotransmitter
sense the amount of transmitter in the cleft and cause the presynaptic neuron to reduce excessive output.
a disease in which myelin is destroyed, reducing conduction speed.
neurons can only release one neurotransmitter
affect ion channels involved in the action potential
synapses that are made onto the soma or cell body of a neuron
the most prominent kind of synapses, and are synapses that one neuron makes onto the dendrite of another neuron.
synapses made by one neuron onto the synapse of another neuron.
a synapse between dendrites of two neurons.
the transmitter brought back into the terminals
a movement disorder characterized by motor tremors, rigidity, loss of balance and coordination, and difficulty in moving, especially in initiating movements; it is caused by deterioration of the substantial nigra.
The nucleus that sends dopamine-releasing neurons to the striatum and that deteriorates in Parkinson's Disease
Action Potential (AP)
An abrupt depolarization of the membrane that allows the neuron to communicate over long distances
the action potential "jumps" from node to node.
a voltage change in a neuron that varies with the strength of the stimulus that indicated it
the principle that an action potential occurs at full strength or it does not occur at all
firing rate of neuron proportional to stimulus intensity
limit a cell's rate of firing
provide physical support to neurons, including myelination
an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex
the brain's protection from toxic substances and neurotransmitters in the bloodstream; the small openings in the capillary walls prevent large molecules from passing through unless they are fat soluble or carried through by special transporters
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The part of the nervous system made up of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The part of the nervous system made up of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves
Planes of dissection
coronal, sagittal, midsagittal, and horizontal
a three layered membrane that encloses and protects the brain: dura, arachnoid, pia.
cavities in the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid
having, involving, or pertaining to a severed corpus callosum
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI)
a class of powerful antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression
Transmitter at muscles; in brain, involved in learning, etc.
Contributes to movement control and promotes reinforcing effects of food, sex, and abused drugs; involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
The predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter. Its receptors respond to alcohol and the class of tranquilizers called benzodiazepines. Deficiency is cause of epilepsy.
The principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. Vitally involved in learning and implicated in schizophrenia.
Involved in mood, sleep and arousal, aggression, depression, obsessive- compulsive disorder, and alcoholism
released during stress. Neurotransmitter in the brain to increase arousal and attentiveness to events in the environment; involved in depression
Precursor for three amine neurotransmitters that contain catechol group (DA, NE, E)
organic compounds that combine to form proteins
small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other. They are neuronal signaling molecules that influence the activity of the brain in specific ways.
the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and other vertebrates
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Controls smooth muscle, glands, heart, and other organs
important for speech production
a prominent landmark of the brain, separating the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex.
the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity
each of the two parts of the cerebrum (left and right) in the brain of a vertebrate
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine. It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain.
a type of defense mechanism in which people overachieve in one area to compensate for failures in another
a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain
the outer layer of the cerebrum, composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness
12 pairs of nerves that enter and leave the underside of the brain; part of PNS
of, on, or relating to the upper side or back
a narrow opening or crack
our emotional control center and home to our personality
a group of cell bodies in the PNS
a ridge or fold between two clefts on the cerebral surface in the brain
a condition in which fluid accumulates in the brain, typically in young children, enlarging the head and sometimes causing brain damage
a region of the forebrain below the thalamus that plays a major role in controlling emotion and behaviors such as eating, drinking and sexual activity
Inferior temporal cortex
an area in the lower part of the temporal bone that plays a major role in the visual identification of objects
outside, towards side
fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes
a surgical procedure that disconnects the prefrontal area from the rest of the brain; it reduces emotionality and pain, but leaves the person emotionally blunted, distractible, and child-like.
the largest fissure that runs the length of the brain, separating the two cerebral hemispheres
inside, towards the middle
the middle part of the brain, consisting of tectum (roof) on the dorsal side and the tegmentum on the ventral side
the area in the frontal lobes that controls voluntary (nonreflexive) body movements; the primary motor cortex is on the pre central gyrus
a bundle of axons running together in the PNS
the most posterior part each cerebral hemisphere, and the location of the visual cortex
Parasympathetic nervous system
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that slows the activity of most organs to conserve energy and activates digestion to renew energy
positioned above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus
a pea-sized conical mass of tissue behind the third ventricle of the brain, secreting a hormonelike substance in some mammals.
a part of the brain stem that contains centers related to sleep and arousal
the gyrus anterior to, and extending the length of, the central sulcus; it is the location of the primary motor cortex
the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe
Primary somatosensory cortex
the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch
the use of surgical intervention to treat cognitive and emotional disorders
a simple, automatic movement in response to a sensory stimulus
Somatic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements.
part of the CNS; the spinal nerves, which communicate with the body below the head, enter and leave the spinal cord.
the peripheral nerves that enter and leave the spinal cord at each vertebra and communicate with the body below the head
undifferentiated cells that can develop into specialized cells such as neurons, muscle, or blood.
the groove or space between two gyro
a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain
Sympathetic nervous system
one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system
one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals
a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain; sends sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness
a bundle of axons in the central nervous system
towards the stomach side
the branch of each spinal nerve through which the motor neurons exit
cavities in the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid
the cortex in the each occipital lobe where visual info is processed
a region of the brain concerned with the comprehension of language, located in the cortex of the dominant temporal lobe
Biosynthetic pathway of neurotransmitters
Propagation of AP