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Forensics Chap. 1

STUDY
PLAY
analytical skills
the ability to identify a concept or problem, to isolate its component parts, to organize information for decision making, to establish criteria for evaluation, and to draw appropriate conclusions
deductive reasoning
deriving the consequences from the facts using a series of logical steps
eyewitness
a person who has seen someone or something and can communicate these facts
fact
a statement or assertion of information that can be verified
forensic
relating to the application of scientific knowledge to legal questions
logical
conclusions drawn from assumptions and known facts
observation
what a person percieves using his or her senses
opinion
personal belief founded on judgment rather than direct experience or knowledge
perception
interpreting information received from the senses
Innocence Project
re-examined post-conviction cases (individuals convicted and in prison) using DNA evidence to provide conclusive proof of guilt or innocence; found that 87% of their wrongful convictions resulted from faulty eyewitness accounts
Four ways to be a good observer
1. Make a conscious effort to examine environment systematically.
2. Turn off mental filters
3. Do not interpret or jump to conclusions
4. Photograph everything (our memories are faulty)
First three things forensics scientists do
find, examine, and evaluate evidence from a crime scene
Paul Ekman
he was th first to determine that a human face has 10,000 possible configurations and identified which muscles are used in each; created the Facial Action Coding System.