________which consists of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as the nonliving
Each organ is made up of several different _____ , each with a specific function and made up of a group of similar cells
New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
Plants and other photosynthetic organisms are the _______ that provide the food for a typical ecosystems
oxygen, carbon dioxide
All animals take in ______, and release ______. Their wastes return other chemicals to the environment
________ act as recyclers , changing complex matter into simpler mineral nutrients that plants can use
recycling of nutrients, flow of energy
The dynamics of ecosystems include two major processes ___________ and _________
chemical nutrients, chemical energy
_________ is recycled WITHIN an ecosystem, wheres as _____ flows THROUGH an ecosystem,entering as light and exiting as heat
Which of the following levels of biological organization includes all others in the list: cell, molecule, organ, tissue?
The goal of ___________ is to construct models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems, ranging from the functioning of the biosphere to the complex molecular machinery of a cell
________is subdivided by internal membranes into many different functional compartments , or organelles,including the nucleus that houses the cell's DNA
Each DNA molecule is made up of two long chains coiled together into why is called a ______________
order,regulation,growth and development, energy processing,response to the environment,reproduction,evolutionary adaption
Name seven things all organisms have in common
Biologists have so far identified and named about 1.8 million _______, the term used for a particular type of organisms
The branch of biology that names and classifies species, arranges them into a hierarchy of broader and broader groups, from genus, family , order, class and phylum , to kingdom.
Most biologists now agree that kingdoms of life can be organized into three branch drops called ____
_______ are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among several kingdoms.
Many of the prokaryotes known as ____ live in earth's extreme environments such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs.
-lacks nucleus(DNA has no nucleus)
-considered much simpler and usually much smaller than a eukaryotic cell
_______ produce their own food(autotroph)
Ex. plants, mosses and other photosynthetic organisms
______ get food by eating plants and other animals(heterotroph)
ex. herbivores, carnivores, omnivores
______ act as recyclers,decompose waste and the remains of dead organisms
Ex. bacteria, fungi and small animals living in the soil
-prokaryotes, unicellular, microscopic
-live in Earth's extreme environments
ex. Halophiles, thermophiles, methanogens
_______ is a kingdom of the domain Eukarya that are diverse collection of mostly unicellular organisms
one of the main scientific approaches of Biology which is mostly about describing nature
one of the main scientific approaches which is mostly about explaining nature
discovery science, hypothesis based science
Science uses two main approaches to learn about nature ___________ and ___________
Discovery science can lead to important conclusions based on a type of logic called ________.This kind of reasoning derives general principles from a large number of specific observations.
evolution, descent with modification
Darwin presented evidence to support the idea of ________- that species living today are descendants of ancestral species. Darwin called his evolutionary theory, "________"
Darwin second point was to propose a mechanism for evolution, a mechanism he called ________-
"all organisms are made of cells" is an _____ conclusion based on the discovery of cells in every microscopic biological specimens observed by biologists over two centuries of time.
________ is the logic used in hypothesis based science to come up with ways to test hypotheses.
the reasoning flows from the general to the specific
A ____ in science is broader in scope. It explains a great diversity of observations and is supported by a large and usually growing body of evidence.
-generate new hypotheses, which can be tested.
In the process of science, ____ usually takes the form of predictions of experimental results or observations we should expect IF a particular hypothesis is correct.
-uses "if..then" logic
A hypothesis must be _______-there must be some way to check its validity and it must be _______- there must be some observation or experiment that could show that it is not true
true or false
No amount of experimental testing can prove a hypothesis beyond a shadow of a doubt, because it is impossible to exhaust all alternative hypotheses.
________one that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group.
_____tells us that all living species are descendants of ancestral species that have become modified as natural selection adapts populations to their environments.
______ is an editing mechanism that occurs when populations of organism , having inherited variations, are exposed to environmental factors that favor reproductive success of some individuals over others.
In ______, scientists carefully observe and describe some aspect of the world and use inductive reasoning to draw general conclusions.