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84 terms

Ch.1 Biology: Exploring life

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biosphere
The _______,which consists of all the environments on Earth that support life
ecosystem
________which consists of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as the nonliving
community
The entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem is called a _____
population
A _____ consists of all the individuals of a species living in a specified area
organism
an individual living thing
organ system
consists of several organs that work together in performing specific functions
tissues
Each organ is made up of several different _____ , each with a specific function and made up of a group of similar cells
membrane
A cell is separated from its environment by a boundary called a ________
organelle
A ______ is a membrane bound structure that performs a specific function in a cell
molecule
A _______ is a cluster of atoms held together by chemical bonds
cell
Life emerges at the level of the ____
emergent properties
New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
producers
Plants and other photosynthetic organisms are the _______ that provide the food for a typical ecosystems
consumers
The ______ of the ecosystems eat plants and other animals.
oxygen, carbon dioxide
All animals take in ______, and release ______. Their wastes return other chemicals to the environment
decomposers
________ act as recyclers , changing complex matter into simpler mineral nutrients that plants can use
recycling of nutrients, flow of energy
The dynamics of ecosystems include two major processes ___________ and _________
chemical nutrients, chemical energy
_________ is recycled WITHIN an ecosystem, wheres as _____ flows THROUGH an ecosystem,entering as light and exiting as heat
organ
Which of the following levels of biological organization includes all others in the list: cell, molecule, organ, tissue?
cell
the lowest level of structure that can perform all activities required for life.
the correlation of structure and function
Cells illustrate a certain theme of biology : " _______"
systems biology
The goal of ___________ is to construct models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems, ranging from the functioning of the biosphere to the complex molecular machinery of a cell
prokaryotic, eukaryotic
There are two basic kinds of cells _______ and _______.
prokaryotic cell
A __________ is much simpler and usually much smaller
-ex. Bacteria
eukaryotic
Forms of life such as plants , animals , and fungi are composed of _______ cells
eukaryotic cell
________is subdivided by internal membranes into many different functional compartments , or organelles,including the nucleus that houses the cell's DNA
constantly
An ecosystem gains and loses energy _______
DNA
All cells have _____, and the continuity of life is based on this genetic material
genes
DNA is the substance of ______
genes
units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring
double helix
Each DNA molecule is made up of two long chains coiled together into why is called a ______________
order,regulation,growth and development, energy processing,response to the environment,reproduction,evolutionary adaption
Name seven things all organisms have in common
DNA as the genetic material
What is the chemical basis for all of life's kinship
species
Biologists have so far identified and named about 1.8 million _______, the term used for a particular type of organisms
taxonomy
The branch of biology that names and classifies species, arranges them into a hierarchy of broader and broader groups, from genus, family , order, class and phylum , to kingdom.
domains
Most biologists now agree that kingdoms of life can be organized into three branch drops called ____
bacteria, archaea
Domain _____ and domain _____ both consist of prokaryotes.
bacteria
_______ are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among several kingdoms.
archaea
Many of the prokaryotes known as ____ live in earth's extreme environments such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs.
eukaryotic
______ cells have a nucleus and other internal structures called organelles
prokaryotic
-lacks nucleus(DNA has no nucleus)
-considered much simpler and usually much smaller than a eukaryotic cell
-Ex. bacteria
eukaryotic
-has a nucleus,which contains its DNA
-organelles
-Ex. plant, animals and fungi
matter,energy
living organisms interact with their environment,exchanging ________ and _____
producers
_______ produce their own food(autotroph)
Ex. plants, mosses and other photosynthetic organisms
consumers
______ get food by eating plants and other animals(heterotroph)
ex. herbivores, carnivores, omnivores
herbivores
only eat plants
carnivores
only eat meat
omnivores
eat both meat and plants
decomposers
______ act as recyclers,decompose waste and the remains of dead organisms
Ex. bacteria, fungi and small animals living in the soil
bacteria
-prokaryotes, unicellular, microscopic
-most diverse and widespread prokaryotes
archaea
-prokaryotes, unicellular, microscopic
-live in Earth's extreme environments
ex. Halophiles, thermophiles, methanogens
halophiles
salt loving
thermophiles
heat loving
kingdom protists,kingdom fungi,kingdom planate,kingdom animalia
Name the 4 kingdoms of Eukarya
kingdom protists
_______ is a kingdom of the domain Eukarya that are diverse collection of mostly unicellular organisms
kingdom fungi
-mostly decomposers
-Break down the remains
-Ex. molds, yeasts and mushrooms
charles darwin
_________ wrote " On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"
science
The word ____ is derived from a latin verb meaning "to know"
natural phenomena
Science seeks natural causes for_____ ______
discovery science
one of the main scientific approaches of Biology which is mostly about describing nature
hypothesis-based science
one of the main scientific approaches which is mostly about explaining nature
discovery science, hypothesis based science
Science uses two main approaches to learn about nature ___________ and ___________
inductive reasoning
Discovery science can lead to important conclusions based on a type of logic called ________.This kind of reasoning derives general principles from a large number of specific observations.
evolution, descent with modification
Darwin presented evidence to support the idea of ________- that species living today are descendants of ancestral species. Darwin called his evolutionary theory, "________"
natural selection
Darwin second point was to propose a mechanism for evolution, a mechanism he called ________-
inductive
"all organisms are made of cells" is an _____ conclusion based on the discovery of cells in every microscopic biological specimens observed by biologists over two centuries of time.
hypothesis
A _____ is a proposed explanation for a set of observations.
deductive reasoning
________ is the logic used in hypothesis based science to come up with ways to test hypotheses.
the reasoning flows from the general to the specific
general, specific
In deductive reasoning, the reasoning flows from _______ to the ______
theory
A ____ in science is broader in scope. It explains a great diversity of observations and is supported by a large and usually growing body of evidence.
-generate new hypotheses, which can be tested.
deductions
In the process of science, ____ usually takes the form of predictions of experimental results or observations we should expect IF a particular hypothesis is correct.
-uses "if..then" logic
testifiable, falsifiable
A hypothesis must be _______-there must be some way to check its validity and it must be _______- there must be some observation or experiment that could show that it is not true
true
true or false
No amount of experimental testing can prove a hypothesis beyond a shadow of a doubt, because it is impossible to exhaust all alternative hypotheses.
controlled experiment
________one that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group.
natural phenomena
The goal of science is to understand ______ ______
technology
The goal of ______ is to apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose
evolution
_____ core theme of biology
evolution
_____tells us that all living species are descendants of ancestral species that have become modified as natural selection adapts populations to their environments.
taxonomy
_____names species and classifies them into a system of broader groups
Evolution
____explains the unity and diversity of life..
natural selection
______ is an editing mechanism that occurs when populations of organism , having inherited variations, are exposed to environmental factors that favor reproductive success of some individuals over others.
adaptations
All organisms have ____ that have evolved by means of natural selection
discovery science
In ______, scientists carefully observe and describe some aspect of the world and use inductive reasoning to draw general conclusions.
hypothesis-based science
In ____________, scientists attempt to explain observations by testing hypotheses.