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JOMC 137 Midterm 1 Pwpt 3-4
Terms in this set (53)
Sender -> message -> medium -> receiver
monologue, not dialogue
Ex: magic bullet and hypodermic needle
The media fires the message directly into audience's head without their own knowledge. The message causes the instant reaction from the audience mind without any hesitation.
Hypodermic Needle Theory
The media injects the message into the audience's mind and it cause changes in audience behavior and psyche towards the message. Audiences are passive and they can't resist the media message.
"War of the worlds" Ad
Magic bullet or hypodermic needle
(Unique Selling Proposition)
One of "reason why" approaches.
The single thing that gives the consumer a reason to buy.
ex: gieco 15 mins could...
Direct sales appeals
Clear-cut product related appeals and product recommendation with emphasis on sales orientation
Building the brand equity (creativity)
Human sentiments are emphasized over clear-cut product related appeals
A model of how individuals process the information they are exposed to in order.
The linear or "transportation" model which is based on a logical and rational process
Attention -> interest -> desire -> action
ELM is a dual route but multi-process theory
The dual routes (central vs. peripheral) refer to attitude change that are based on different degrees of effortful information processing activities
(ELM) Relatively extensive and effortful information processing aimed at scrutinizing and uncovering the central merits of the issue
(ELM) Less effortful information processing influenced by internal or external factors not associated with the core of the issue such as visual cues or celebrity
Scrutinizing the product-relevant information presented in an advertisement.
Favorable attitude toward cogent and persuasive message.
Unfavorable attitude to ward weak and specious information.
Not expanding the effort required to think about the product-relevant arguments.
Focusing on attractiveness or prestige of the product's endorser.
Thinking vs feeling with involvement matrix (see class 3, slide 23-24)
Intertextuality refers to the ways in which one text refers to other texts.
Consumers must have the relevant cultural knowledge to decode the intertextual references in advertisements.
2 logics of advertising
individualism vs collectivism
Identity is in the person, people are "I" conscious, self-actualization is important, individual's decisions are valued more than group ones, low-context cultures
One's identity is based on society, people are "we" conscious, "shame" society, priority to relationships with others, high-context cultures
Individualism: how you or your product is different, why your product is best using clearly stated information and benefits, consumers will want to buy because they have a clear reason, if they are satisfied consumers will like and trust the company and the product and make repeat purchases
Collectivism: make friends with the target audience, prove that you understand their feelings, show that you are nice, consumers will want to buy because they trust you, after purchase consumers find out if the product is good/what the benefits are
What is a brand?
Site to produce uniqueness
Proprietary visual, emotional, rational image associate with a company or product
Intangible asset that produces added benefits for business
Association network in the mind of the consumer
Feeling a product evokes
A strong brand can make:
Positive consumer product evaluation
Better perceptions of product quality
Higher purchase rates
Stronger consumer product confidence
To mitigate the potential impact of a negative trial experience
Brand leaders can command:
more immune to price increases
lower levels of price sensitivity
The bias shown by customers towards certain products because of a favorable experience with other products made by the same manufacturer or maker.
Driven by brand equity.
Well-known and well-liked brand:
"Halo effects" related to the positive feelings toward a brand that can positively bias the evaluation of brand advertising.
Humor in ads are more effective.
Consumers who have a high level of commitment to a brand are more likely to counter-argue with negative information.
How does a brand work?
Brand enables consumers to take a short cut through extended product searches and simply buy with assurance.
Brand financial performance, influence of customer choice, strength of brand relative to competition
Benefits of creating a strong brand
Improved perceptions of product performance
Less vulnerability to competitive marketing actions and marketing crises
More inelastic consumer response to price increases and more elastic consumer response to price decrease
Greater trade cooperation and support
Increased marketing communication effectiveness
Licensing opportunities and additional brand extension opportunities
Perceptual map of positive and negative association network (brand in the middle, spokes off it with these attributes): products, values, benefits, users, places occasions moods moments, visual images, attributes
Set of human characteristics associated with a brand, personification (mercedes = sexy, chevy = tough)
Brand personality framework
Big-5 personalities: Sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, ruggedness
Effects of brand personality
Increase consumer preference and usage
Increase levels of brand trust and brand loyalty
Self-brand connections (congruency effect)
Roles of AD and PR
Affect change internally and externally to the company
Transform entire businesses by generating new markets
Revitalize a declining brand
Stop line extensions cannibalizing existing sales
Influence share price
Increase growth of a mature brand in a declining market
Marginal perspective (of role of AD and PR)
They are the final step in bringing an offering to market. How to posit its brand in consumer's mind.
Consumer perspective (of role of AD and PR)
They are the only step that consumers see before consumption. To make easy and confident about the consumption (Cognitive miser).
What is positioning
the abstract psychological attributes and associations that a brand may evoke for consumers
Segment (cut the market into pieces and focus on the piece or pieces that make the most sense; demographics, geographies, usage, etc.)
Target (efficiently deliver the branding effort to the chosen segments)
Positioning (attempt to give your brand a certain meaning relative to its competitors; select the marketing mix most appropriate for the target segments)
Symantec brand opportunity model
4 circle venn diagram:
Relevance: Where is the strong consumer connection? What is the revealed need of consumers?
Stretch: Will the brand's meaning behave continued relevance in changing times? Will it foster brand extension?
Credibility: Will consumer believe it?
Differentiation: Can the brand stand out as significantly different than others?
Essentials for effective positioning strategies
Deliver on the promise.
There is magic in consistency.
Make it different simply.
Sales volume, what we want to accomplish, what is the ad to do
How are we going to achieve the marketing objective; form the bridge between the MKT plan and IMC
Integrated Marketing Communications; Using a variety of media channels to optimize the effectiveness of brand marketing communications.
ATL +BTL = TTL (Through -the -line)
Core of the entire campaign
Distinctive value & personality
Reflecting brand positioning
Closely associated with MKT objectives
Each medium has its own characteristics
Maximizing synergy effect is important
Brand research and competition analysis
Action plan and tactics
Types of brand research and competition analysis
marketing analysis and communication analysis
A review of pricing, resources, competitors' activities, etc.
Message and media comparison to competitors, etc.
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats matrix of internal vs external factors
Something directly related to the brand or product. Company can control these factors
Ex: price, functionality, Brand awareness, etc.
Something indirectly related to the brand or product. Company cannot control these factors
Ex: recession, price of raw materials, competitors, etc.
Demographic info, psychographic info
Ad strategy, media plan, big idea
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