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a complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homeland
a monotheistic religion originating in ancient Iran that became the official religion of the Achaemenids
a heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation
Greek term used to describe a leader who seized and held power in violation of the normal procedures and traditions of the community
system of government in which all "citizens" have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections
aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens
conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian empire, ranging from Ionian Revolt through Darius' expedition to Marathon
Athenian philosopher who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior
a protracted and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world
king of Macedonia in northern Greece that conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across Middle East
the era between 320-30 BCE in which Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great
the Macedonian dynasty, descended from one of Alexander the Great's officers, that ruled Egypt for three centuries
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