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Adapted from "The Earth and its Peoples: A Global History," 5th ed., Chapter 4


founder of Achaemenid Persian Empire

Darius I

third ruler of Persian Empire


the governor of a province in Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king


a complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homeland


a monotheistic religion originating in ancient Iran that became the official religion of the Achaemenids


the Greek term for city-state


a heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation


Greek term used to describe a leader who seized and held power in violation of the normal procedures and traditions of the community


system of government in which all "citizens" have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections


a gift given to a deity


heir to the technique of historia, developed by the Greeks in the late Archaic period


aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens

Persian Wars

conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian empire, ranging from Ionian Revolt through Darius' expedition to Marathon


Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries BCE


Athenian philosopher who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior

Peloponnesian War

a protracted and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world


king of Macedonia in northern Greece that conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across Middle East

Hellenistic Age

the era between 320-30 BCE in which Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great


the Macedonian dynasty, descended from one of Alexander the Great's officers, that ruled Egypt for three centuries


city on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, founded by Alexander

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