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20 terms

Greece and Iran, 1000-30 BCE

Adapted from "The Earth and its Peoples: A Global History," 5th ed., Chapter 4
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Cyrus
founder of Achaemenid Persian Empire
Darius I
third ruler of Persian Empire
satrap
the governor of a province in Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king
Persepolis
a complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homeland
Zoroastrianism
a monotheistic religion originating in ancient Iran that became the official religion of the Achaemenids
polis
the Greek term for city-state
hoplite
a heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation
tyrant
Greek term used to describe a leader who seized and held power in violation of the normal procedures and traditions of the community
democracy
system of government in which all "citizens" have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections
sacrifice
a gift given to a deity
Herodotus
heir to the technique of historia, developed by the Greeks in the late Archaic period
Pericles
aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens
Persian Wars
conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian empire, ranging from Ionian Revolt through Darius' expedition to Marathon
trireme
Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries BCE
Socrates
Athenian philosopher who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior
Peloponnesian War
a protracted and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world
Alexander
king of Macedonia in northern Greece that conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across Middle East
Hellenistic Age
the era between 320-30 BCE in which Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great
Ptolemies
the Macedonian dynasty, descended from one of Alexander the Great's officers, that ruled Egypt for three centuries
Alexandria
city on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, founded by Alexander