30 terms

History: Islam- Beliefs and Empires

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Allah
Muslim name for the one and only God
Mohammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
Koran
Holy book of Islam
Mosque
Muslim house of worship
Sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Five Pillars
Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
Jihad
A holy war undertaken as a sacred duty by Muslims
hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca
Umayyads
A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.
Abbassids
The second ruling family who move the capitol to Baghadad. They are Shi -ite Muslims. Have a Golden Age
Al-kwarzmi
father of algebra
Sunni
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
Shi'ite
A member of the branch of Islam that supports the descendants of Muhammad as his rightful successors
Caliph
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
Ottomans
followers of Osman, major power in Islam after the Abbasids. conquered the entire byzantine empire
Janissaries
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan
Devirshirme
(ottoman) taking Christian children and turning them into janissaries
millet
A community of a religious minority in the Ottoman Empire headed by a state-appointed religious leader
Osman
founder of the ottoman Empire
Mehmet II
7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire)
Suleiman
Ottoman sultan who brought the Ottoman Empire to its height; he succeeded in defeating the Habsburgs and capturing Vienna
Safavids
A shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the persians, ottomans and arabs
Isma'il
founder of Safavid empire, killed Shi'ite
Abbas
The greatest Safavid leader. Reformed government, strengthened military, acquired modern gunpowder weapons. Reformed the government and strengthened the military.
Ghulams
-"Boy"
-Mercenary soldier
Babur
brilliant general who laid the foundation for the Mughal Empire
Akbar
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus.
Jahangir
Son of Akbar he was the "Grasper of the World." He married the Persian princess Nur Jahan, who really controlled the state affairs because he was a weak ruler. He was overthrown by his son Khusrau.
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death