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History: Islam- Beliefs and Empires
Muslim name for the one and only God
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
Holy book of Islam
Muslim house of worship
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
A holy war undertaken as a sacred duty by Muslims
pilgrimage to Mecca
A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.
The second ruling family who move the capitol to Baghadad. They are Shi -ite Muslims. Have a Golden Age
father of algebra
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
A member of the branch of Islam that supports the descendants of Muhammad as his rightful successors
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
followers of Osman, major power in Islam after the Abbasids. conquered the entire byzantine empire
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan
(ottoman) taking Christian children and turning them into janissaries
A community of a religious minority in the Ottoman Empire headed by a state-appointed religious leader
founder of the ottoman Empire
7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire)
Ottoman sultan who brought the Ottoman Empire to its height; he succeeded in defeating the Habsburgs and capturing Vienna
A shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the persians, ottomans and arabs
founder of Safavid empire, killed Shi'ite
The greatest Safavid leader. Reformed government, strengthened military, acquired modern gunpowder weapons. Reformed the government and strengthened the military.
brilliant general who laid the foundation for the Mughal Empire
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus.
Son of Akbar he was the "Grasper of the World." He married the Persian princess Nur Jahan, who really controlled the state affairs because he was a weak ruler. He was overthrown by his son Khusrau.
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death