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Repro Study 1 Exam 1
Terms in this set (65)
both corpus (h-shaped) and disseminante prostate gland
compare the shape and distribution of the prostate gland among the bull
mostly disseminante, widely distributed
compare the shape and distribution of the prostate gland among the boar
entirely dissemninate prostate gland
compare the shape and distribution of the prostate gland among the ram
two lateral lobes
compare the shape and distribution of the prostate gland among the stallion
the scrotum would become wrinkled and move dorsocranial in relation to the abdomen by the contraction of the cremaster muscel and tunica dartos. they move because they have to stay cooler than the body, but subzero temperatures can damage the testis. the position would change over time because the cremaster muscle that holds them up is striated and tires after time.
if we were to place a bull in subzero temperatures explain what would initially happen to the shape and position of the scrotum in relation to the abdomen and why? would this position change over time and why?
it operates by counter-curretn heat exchange. the pp is like a radiator with an artery coming down and a vein wrapped around it in a complex shape. the artery comes down from the abdomen with warmer blood in it and the vein going toward the abdomen is cooler leaving the scrotum. This ensures the blood entering the testis is not too warm because if it becomes too warm sperm production can be affected negatively.
explain how panpiniform plexus works to maintain proper testicular temperature.
..... and it excludes entry of certain substances and functions to retain ABP
how are sertoli cells connected to each other and what is the purpose of these junctional complexes
they add their contribution to the seminal fluid at the penile urethra outside of the gonads
where do accessory sex glands add their contribution to the seminal fluid?
seminiferous tubules, rete testes, efferent duct, head of epididymis, body of epidiymis, tail of epididymis, ductus defernse, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, bulbourethra gland, penial urethra, glans penis
what are the tubular structures spermatozoa will encounter from its synthesis in the seminiferous tubules to its exit from the penile urethra in the BOAR?
scrotal skin, tunica dartos, scrotal fascia, parietal tunica vaginalis, cavity, visceral tunica vaginalis, tunica ablugeinea, seminiferous tubules
working outside in from scrotum to seminiferous tubules, what are all the layers you would pass through
what is responsible for changing the surface area of scrotum
if the sex cords do not produce testis determining factor, ultimately no AMH will be produced. therefore the Mullerian ducts will develop into the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes and anterior vagina and the wolffian ducts will regress into blind sacs that empty into the vestibule, known as Gartners ducts.
explain how the Mullerian ducts are formed in an undifferentiated embryo that will become a female fetus and what structures do they develop into?
2 horns, 2 cervices, rabbits
duplex uterus and examples
2 horns, 1 cervix, cow
bicornuate uterus and example
no disteniet horns, developed uterian body, 1 cervix, human
simplex uterus and examples
cervix of cow
cervix of sow
loose folds of mucosa
cervix of mare
sperm capacitation, sperm hyperactivation, sperm fertilization, preimplantation development
what are four functions of oviductal fluid?
fimbrae, infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus
name and give brief description of sections of oviducts
fimbrae - finger like projections that help surround the ovary of ovulation
brief description of section 1 of oviducts
indundibulum - funnel that surrounds ovary at ovulation
brief description of section 2 of oviducts
ampulla - wider half of oviduct, site of oocyte fertilization, in mares only fertilized oocyte allowed to pass
brief description of section 3 of oviducts
brief description of section 4 of oviducts
isthmus - narrower half, joins up with uterus, cows and ewes have flexure during estrus
brief description of section 5 of oviducts
utero - tubal junction
brief description of section 6 of oviducts
secretes mucus during estrus (particularly in the cow and ewe), isolates the fetus during pregnancy, has crypts that act as a resivoir for sperm and facilitates the passage way for sperm into the uterus.
what are three functions of the cervix
cervix, anterior vagina, vestibular gland
what are the three structures that produce mucus at estrus in the ewe
the epithelium in the anterior vagina is columnar and secretory, this is important because the cells secrete mucus at estrus for lubrication
the epithelium in the interior vagina is stratified squamous cells, this is significant because these cells become thicker during estrus to provide protection during breeding.
explain the difference in the posterior and anterior vagina and explain the significance of that
spermatocytogenesis + meiosis + spermiogenesis
1' spermatocytes have the longest life span (expecially in prophase) 2' spermatocytes have the shortest lifespan
which sperm cells have the longest and shortest livespans?
theca interna cells respond to LH and make androgens in resposne.
granulosa cells respond to FSH and make estrogen in response
what gonadotropin do granulosa cells and theca interna cells respond to and what steroids do each of them make in response.
uterus muscle, called myometrium and is composed of longitudinal smooth muscles with layers of circular smooth muscle beneath it.
what is the name given to the muscle of the uterus and describe the muscular arrangement
it is a double walled membrane directly beneath the plasmalemma on the head (cap) of sperm. It contains acrosin and hyaluronidase
describe the acrosomal cap and what enzymes it contains..
the middle portion of the sperm tail starts at the base of the sperm head at the neck and ends at the annulus. the central core is called athe axoneme. the middle portion consists of 9 outer course fibers surrounding 9 pairs of microtubules surrounding 2 central filaments
what are the boundaries that demarcate the begging and end of the middle portion of the sperm tail, what is the central core called, and what is the arrangement of fibers in the middle portion?
what specifically causes the testes to decend from the abdominal cavity into the scrotum?
ampulla, prostate, bulbourethra glands, vesicular glands
list the accessory sex glands in the stallion
ampulla, bulbourethra glands, vesicular glands, prostate
list the accessory sex glands of a bull
corpus and deseminate (bigger vesicular gland) part of it lies outside the urethialis muscle and part runs along the penial urethra
what kind of prostate does a bull have
2 lateral lobes
what kind of prostate does a stallion have?
mostly diseminante prostate, most prostate runs along the penile urethra
what kind of prostate does a boar have?
all deseminate - all prostate runs along penile urethra
what kind of prostate does a ram have?
1 layer of granulosa cells it develops into a primary follicle
primordial follicle is surrounded by
has 1 layer of granulosa cells around the primary oocyte
two or more layers of granulosa cells
Graffian follicle it has an antrum opening also has 3 layers (theca externa, theca interna, and granulosa cells)
tertiary follicles is also known as
thermoreceptors send signals to brain telling animal to pant or sweat and wrinkle skin
smooth muscle that can sustain contraction
countercurrent heat exchange, hot blood artery down, cool blood vein up
striated muscle moves testes up and down and increases or decreases surface area
uterus, cervix, and anterior vagina
what do mullerian ducts develop into in the female
blind sac, that empties into vestibule, gamuers ducts
what do the wolffian ducts develop into in a male
estrogen, progesterone, inhibin, relaxin, activin and oxytocin
the ovary has both exocrine and endocrine functions. what hormones does the ovary synthesize and secrete?
corpus hemmoragicum, corpus leteum, corpus albicans
what examining ovaries of an ewe, what structures would help you determine if she has ovulated or not
theca interna - LH
granulosa cells - FSH
what are the distinct layers of the tertiary follicle and which one responds to LH and which responds to FSH?
durin estrous there is a flexure
what is special about the uterotubal junction in the cow
sperm transportation, luteal mechanisms, implantation and gestation, partution
what are the functions of the uterus?
longitudinal smooth muscle, circular smooth muscle
describe the arrangement of the masculature found in the myometrium
spermatocytogenesis is spermatagonia undregoing mitotic division. spermiogenesis is morphological change of round spermatids differentiating into spermatazoa
how does spermatocytogenesis differ from spermiogenesis
entrance of penis into vagina
sperm moving out of epidiymis and mixing with secretion fluid
movement of sperm and fluid down penile urethra
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