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Psychology CH1

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What is the most complete definition of psychology?
Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes
What makes psychology a scientific discipline?
Its focus on testing theories
Which Greek philosopher first espoused the idea that people are motivated by a pleasure principle?
Aristotle
Psychology made the transition from philosophy to science with which event?
Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory
For her first psychology paper in grad school, Tina decided to write about the subject of psychophysicas. Which of the following is most likely to be the name of her paper?
Men's physical reactions to different concentrations of perfume
G. Stanley Hall is known for all of the following except:
He is considered the founder of American Psychology
Which of the following early pioneers of psychology became the first scientist of the mind?
Wundt
You have been assigned to write a report on Wundts contributions to psychology. Which would be the most useful term for an Internet search?
Introspection
A functionalist is most likely to ask which of the following questions?
What is the purpose of superstitions?
Your psychology professor asks a student volunteer to concentrate on an apple and describe the individual elements of that experience. Your professor is demonstration the technique of
introspection
Psychological researcher Dr. Tatrino relies chiefly on introspection. Tatrino probably belongs to which school of psychology?
Structuralism
Which of the following schools of thought focused on breaking conscious experience into its component parts?
Structuralism
Which early school of psychology is associated with the method of introspection?
Structuralism
Who is generally recognized as the founder of American psychology?
James
Wundt is to _____ as James is to _____
Structuralism: Functionalism
Your notes about William James would most likely include which term?
Functionalism
Functionalism focused on
How individuals adapt to their environment
Structuralist are to elements of ____ as chemists are to the elements listed in the periodic table
consciousness
The founder of behaviorism was
Watson
In preparing a report on John Watson, you would want to do a literature search using what term?
behaviorism
The behaviorist emphasis on observable events as the focus of inquiry can be traced to which philosopher?
Aristotle
A strong belief that the environment molds the behavior of humans and other animals is characteristic of which school of psychology?
behaviorist
The major proponent of behaviorism for much of the twentieth century was
Skinner
Animal train Bob Jeffers uses rewards to teach his animals to perform silly tricks in the circus. Jeffer's techniques are based on principles from which school of psychology?
Behaviorism
Regarding behaviorism, which of the following statements is true?
B. F. Skinner presented ideas and techniques for rewarding and punishing behavior
Your dog is demonstrating some unacceptable behavior. You are able to go back in time to talk to one of the pioneers of psychology. Who would be the best choice to help with your problem?
B.F. Skinner
The Gesalt school of psychology was founded by
Wertheimer
Dr. Spires talks with some students before psychology class begins. Spires says, "I believe that mental experience is best understood as a whole, rather than in terms of its parts" Her students recognize that Spires follows which school of thought?
Gestalt
An emphasis on the unconscious and early childhood experience is characteristic of which school of psychology?
Psychodynamic
The definition of the German word "Gesatalt" is closest to that of the English word
pattern
According to Freud, abnormal behaviors, like phobias, are
shaped by early experiences
"Talk Therapy" is associated with which of the following?
Sigmund Freud
Which of the following reflects and influence of psychodynamic theory in todays's culture?
The belieft that psychological problems are rooted in childhood
An extension of the behavioral perspective that incorporates the study of mental processes is termed
social-cognitive theory
Which of the following mental health professionals is most likely a behavior therapist?
Dr. Barney, who uses techniques based on learning principles to help clients alter maladaptive behaviors
Compared to Freud, neo-Freudians place less emphasis on
Sexual and aggressive motives
The "third force" in psychology is more formally known as
humanistic psychology
Which theorists are associated with humanistic psychology?
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
A humanistic psychologist is most likely to agree with which of the following statements?
Each individual is unique
Your friend asks whether there is any evidence that ADHD might be due to abnormal brain structures. You might suggest that she take a course in
physiological psychology
The approach that studies the relationships between biological processes and behavior is termed
physiological psychology
A movements within modern psychology that applies principles from Darwins theories is called
evolutionary psychology
Which of the following psychologists is most likely to study how humans process information?
A cognitive psychologist
The research study of a cognitive psychologist is most likely to involve which of the following topics?
Problem solving
Which perspective is most responsible for bringing issues related to diversity to the forefront of psychological research?
sociocultural
Ethnic minorities make up approximately what portion of the population in the US?
1/3
How many people in the US describe themselves as multiracial?
7 million
Moreno, trigueno, and indio are terms used by which Americans to indicate ancestry and variations in skin tones?
Hispanic
Traditional "racial" distinctions between people
do not stand up to genetic tests
An eclectic psychologist is one who
employs the theories and principles of different psychological perspectives
Positive psychology is distinctively different from much of the rest of psychology because of its emphasis on
understanding human strengths and assets
Who is most closely assoiated with the positive psychology movement?
Martin Seligman
Which perspective in psychology would suggest that depression is related to changes in brain chemistry?
physiological
A humanist would give which explanation for aggression?
Aggression increases when people become frustrated by not being able to meet their goals
Which perspective hypothesizes that depression results from maladaptive thought patterns?
cognitive
Which perspective in psychology would suggest that obesity is related to unresolved childhood needs for love and support?
psychodynamic
A researcher adhering to the behavioral perspective would likely believe that aggression
is learned when it is rewarded by the environment
"You alone know what is good for you. You need to make a conscious choice to change your behavior and start being true to yourself" Which perspective is this?
Humanist
You eavesdrop as several psychologists eat lunch together. Which statement is from a behaviorist?
"I believe that early learning experiences have shaped my actions as an adult"
A researcher adhering to the psychodynamic perspective would likely believe that depression
represents anger turned inward
As a humanist, Dr. Randall is most likely interested in
Can a lack of purpose influence a person's depression
The difference between basic and applied research is that only basic research
is almost always associated with universities or government agencies
Most psychologists
provide psychological services
What is the graduate degree most commonly earned by psychologists?
Ph.D
Which subspecialty represents the largest group of psychologists?
clinical
Of the following subspecialties in psychology, which is LEAST likely to focus on applied research?
Experimental
The Psy.D degree is appropriate for those who wish to focus more on _____ skills than on ___ skills.
Practitioner: research
Which of the following play a professional role that most closely approximates that of psychiatrists?
Clinical psychologists
A school psychologist would be most likely to
administer an intelligence test to a twelve year old child
What type of psychologist studies the bases of memory problems in the elderly using animal research subjects?
comparative
The executives of an aircraft company want to redesign the interior of their jet planes to offer passengers the most comfort within the confined space. what type of psychologist would they need to consult?
environmental
An industrial/organizational psychologist would typically
make suggestions to a manager regarding employee morale
A developmental psychologist is most likely to study which of the following research questions?
How do children's eating habits change as they progress form childhood through adolescence?
Dana is studying the variables that influence initial attraction, while Leonard is studying the traits that are typical of couples in long-term relationships. Dana is most likely taking a class in _____ psychology whereas Leonard is most likely taking a class in _______ psychology.
Social/ personality
What major would a student writing a paper entitled "The Role of Observational learning in the development of prejudice" be working towards?
social psychology
A health psychologist might study the
effectiveness of ads that use fear to get adolescents to stop smoking
A counseling psychologist is most likely to see
a college student who is confused about choosing a college major
Which type of psychologist is most likely to administer an intelligence test to a seven year old child who is being evaluated for placement in a special ed program?
school
Which task is an educational psychologist least likely to perform?
administer intelligence tests to students
Which type of psychologist would most likely study such phenomena as the effects of parenting style on a child's emotional growth?
developmental
Which psychologist would be most likely to be involved in a study that seeks to identify the common traits of people who develop a stress-related disorder?
personality psychologist
Which type of psychologist would evaluate whether overcrowding in urban areas is associated with increased violent crimes?
environmental
On Jeans first day as an industrial/organizational psychologist Jean was least surprised when management asked her to
recommend ways to improve employees' job satisfaction
The APA was founded in
1892
Dr. Samuelson conducts research on the relationship between stroke and speech problems. He is probably a
neuropsychologist
Dr. Starling works with the FBI to develop personality profiles of rapists. Dr. Starling is probably what type of psychologist?
Forensic
A consultant who advises defense attorneys regarding what their accused client should wear in court is likely to be what type of psychologist?
forensic
Which of the following statements is true of Mary Whiton Calkins?
She was the first female president of the APA
Who is the only african american to have served as president of the APA?
Kenneth Clark
Who was the first woman to earn a Ph.D in psychology in the US?
Margaret Floy Washburn
Which psychology pioneer conducted the study that showed that African American preschoolers preferred plaing with a white doll to playing with a black doll?
Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps-Clark
The first AA to receive a doctorate in psychology in the US was ______ and the first AA to publish research findings in a major US journal was _____
Francis Sumner and J. Henry Alston
Whose work played an important role in the US Supreme court case Brown v Board
Kenneth and Mamie Clark
Women account for apprx what % of Ph.D recipients in psychology?
70%
A method of developing knowledge based on the evaluation of evidence from experiemtns and careful observation is called the
empirical approach
The goals of psychology are to describe, predict, explain, and....
control events
A conclusion drawn from an observation is referred to as a
inference
Theories are
explanations that organize observations and account for the relationships among them
The use of psychotherapy to help people deal with depression is an example of which goal of psychology?
control
Which of the following statements about psychology is true?
Psychologists are trained to be skeptics
Psychologists frame their research questions in the form of
hypotheses
After reading about a study that concluded that having a dog is beneficial for an elderly person's health, Dr. Wolpe was skeptical. Therefore, he decided to do a similar study to see whether he would achieve the same results. Dr. Wolpe's study would be termed a
replication
Dr. Mingus keeps a very detailed record of a series of interviews with an individual who is suffering from a rare brain disorder. This is an example of which research method?
case study
Your psychology professor refers to a research study and says the results were"statistically significant." What does this mean?
The results are unlikely to have been due to chance or other random factors
Social desirability bias and volunteer bias are problems typically associated with which research method?
surveys
In order to make sure that a sample drawn from a population is truly representative, it is necessary to use
random sampling
If people overestimate the amount of money they give to charity, the exaggeration probably represents
social desirability bias
Developmental psychologist Arthur Chang observes children in a day care center through a one-way mirror. This is which form of research?
Naturalistic observation
A statistical measure of the association between two variables is called a
correlation coefficient
A correlation coefficient of 0.00 means that
there is no relationship between the variables
What does a correlation of +1.00 mean?
That knowing the value of one variable allows perfect prediction of the value of another
In a study of the effects of sleep deprivation on aggressiveness, the number of hours that a participant stays awake represents the
independent variable
An experiment investigates whether watching television while eating causes a person to eat more potato chips than one eats when not watching television. In this case, the number of potato chips eaten represents the
dependent variable
Which of the following definitions best describes "independent variable"
A factor manipulated in an experiment
In an experiment, the factor that is expected to change is referred to as the
dependent variable
An experimental group receives treatment and is then measured for the effect. What happens to the control group in the experiment?
It receives no treatment at all but is measured
In a drug study, Group One receives an inactive pill, and Group Two receives a pill that is believed to be effective in treating depression. Group Two is the
experimental group
Every participant in an experiment has an equal chance of receiving one of the treatments. This is called
random assignment
Dr.Schultze conducts research on the effects of a new drug on obsessive-compulsive disorder. In his study, neither Schultze nor the participants knows who is receiving the active drug and who is receiving the placebo. This is an example of
double-blind study
A placebo effect would be most likely to account for changes in
pain intensity
In the case "Anatomy of a Research Study: Clocking First Impressions," presented in your text, what was the finding?
That people can form meaningful impressions from a mere glimpse of a person's face
In the case "Anatomy of a Research Study: Clocking First Impressions," presented in your text, trait ratings and confidence ratings were the
dependent variables