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Science 101 test 1
Terms in this set (58)
the discipline of identifying and classifying organisms
who devised the current scheme for taxonomy
what are all the classes
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
what happens to specificity in the classes
specificity increases and species number decreases each level down
what are the unique characteristics shared by each group
what are the three domains of life
bacteria eukaryota and archaea
what domains have no membrane bound nucleus
bacteria and archaea
in the taxonomy of animals what are humans
in the taxonomy of chordates what are humans
in the taxonomy of amniotes what are humans
what are the three shared traits of animals
hair, 3 inner ear bones, mammary glands
what are the three major types of mammals
monotremes, marsupials, placentals
which types of mammals lay eggs
which type of mammals extremely immature young and spend the early days in their mothers pouch
which type of mammals nurture young in the womb
abiotic components are
non-living chemical and physical factors such as temperature, light, and nutrients
biotic components are
living factors such as other organisms like competition, predators, herbivory
abiotic and biotic components interact
the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms and the interactions that determine distribution and abundance
a single individual of a single species
individuals of the same species living in the same geographical area
2 or more populations living in the same area
comprising the community together with its physical environment
when one species benefits from the association and the other is unaffected
when one species benefits and the other is harmed
individuals of different species living in very close association
what are the types of symbiosis
mutualism, commensialism, paracitism
invasive exotic species are
introduced species that disrupt communities by a dominant colonization of a particular habitat or from a loss of nature controls
the scientific method is
observation, calculated question, hypothesis, test, prediction, results, conclusion
what is the difference between the results and the conclusion
the results are what happened, the conclusion is what you have learned based on what happened
in the rabbit case on TB what affected the survival rate
the environmental conditions
what is the most numerous organism on earth
An unidentified lifeform was just discovered. It has a cell membrane and DNA, but no membrane-bound nucleus. What domain or domains of life could this organism possibly belong to?
Another new life form was discovered in a hot spring environment. It thrives at temperatures greater than most organisms can tolerate. What domain is it most likely a part of?
Based on the tree of life presented for kingdom Eukarya, to which group are we (animals) more closely related: Plants or fungi?
• Why is the Amazon so significant in terms of biodiversity, natural resources, and ecosystem function?
because it contains 50-90% of all species on earth
o Of the loggers, cattle ranchers, peasant farmers, and indigenous tribes, one group is causing the most destruction by far. Which group?
what are the five trophic levels
primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, quaternary consumers
primary producers are
eat primary producers
eat primary consumers
eat secondary consumers
eat tertiary consumers
what are communities of organisms embedded in their physical/ chemical environment
• What is the difference between a food chain and food web? Which one is more accurate of reality?
a food chain is linear sequence of feeding interactions whereas a food web is a milti linkage feeding interaction
• What material in our cells serves as a "blueprint" for encoding all of our proteins?
• When a cell replicates itself, it must copy its genome. Errors that occur during this copying process are called _________________.
• Why are mutations said to be the "raw material of evolution"?
• Do most mutations lead to greater reproductive success?
no most are harmful
• What is evolution?
a change in genetic makeup of biological populations throughout time
• What is natural selection? What does it mean that natural selection is a mechanism of evolution?
natural selection is the adaptations of species to survive over time, it proves the theory of evolution
• Are mutations random?
• Is natural selection random?
no it is a non-random filter of a populations variations
What is "Background Extinction," and how are "mass extinctions" different?
mass extinctions- are events that that led to a profound loss of biodiversity
background extinctions- are extinction at the natural rate
Describe some of the evidence the author presents that would support the idea that we are in the midst of a sixth mass extinction. (You can find some ideas in the same section of the chapter as the discussion on background extinction.)
- the odds of witnessing an extinction should be effectively zero yet Griffith has seen several amphibian extinctions
What was causing the rapid disappearance of Panamanian Golden Frog? Be sure to think about both the direct cause of death, as well as the role of humans in increasing the rate and magnitude of the frog deaths.
- a fungus called Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, it spread so rapidly because of it traveling internationally by shipments
Darwin believed that species appeared and went extinct gradually, by the process of natural selection. He did not think it was necessary to consider that species could also be wiped out by sudden large catastrophes. How was human activity providing evidence to the contrary, even in Darwin's own time?
- The great auk disappeared and was categorized by british ornithologist
What happened to the great auk, and what does this say about how humans use resources? Do you think that today we have learned our lesson, and are wiser about our use of resources? Why or why not?
- we hunted the auk into extinction and we are wiser today about how we use our resources because there are groups of people that formed organizations to make sure we do not overuse our resources again
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