APUSH Unit 6: The Gilded Age (1865-1900)
Terms in this set (81)
4. Labor Unrest
5. Westward Migration/Indians
The US became the most industrialized nation on Earth by 1900, and its production was focused on Bessemer steel and products made from it.
Railroad building: a huge amount of steel was needed-stimulated the entire economy/industry, and now products could be delivered via train and shipped EVERYWHERE!
No government intervention on behalf of businesses->allowed companies to make more money. There were no product laws or quality control.
A huge number of immigrants->huge new work force->lower wages (due to competition).
Companies owned by stock-holders.
(ex. Andrew Carnegie): companies are in-house: own railroads, materials, etc. Beneficial because it lowers the cost for everyone.
(ex. John D. Rockefeller); illegal today: a monopoly in which a company buys out every other company and controls 100% of the product and its production.
Enabled the second coming of Industrialization.
Homestead Act (1862)
A law that granted 160 free acres of land to any citizen or immigrant who agreed to cultivate it for 5 years. *There was a relatively small application fee.
Morrill Act (1862)
Granted free land to states or territories for the creation of agricultural colleges. (Wanted people who didn't know how to farm to be able to take advantage of the Homestead Act)
Pacific Railway Act (1862)
Granted free land to the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroad companies to build the Transcontinental Railroad.
Completed in 1876 when the Union and Central Pacific Railroad Companies joined their tracks in Promonatory Point, Utah.
The largest silver strike in world history. It occurred in 1859 near Carson City, Nevada.
After the Civil War, large profits were made producing beef in Texas, Colorado, and Kansas.
The Gilded Age
A term coined by Mark Twain. Although this age seemed golden, it was clear that underneath it all was so much corruption, that it was only gilded.
(Unequal) Wealth Distribution
In the short-term, industrialization caused 10% of the US population (the incredibly wealthy) to own 90% of the nation's wealth. In the long-term, industrialization created a large and prosperous middle class.
Businessmen who used corrupt or unethical practices to accumulate vast fortunes. (Ex. Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Carnegie, J.P. Morgan, Stanford, Cook)
"race is species": a pseudoscientific political theory that justified the exploitation of people by applying it to Darwin's theory of Natural Selection
Credit Mobilier Scandal
The Board of Directors of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, including Vice President Schuyler Colfax, stole $20 Million from their own company.
Corrupt organizations of politicians who controlled municipal and state governments by rigging elections, trading favors, and stealing taxpayer funds.
Tweed Ring/Tammany Hall
A political machine that controlled New York City during the Gilded Age. Boss Tweed and his associates stole $200 million in taxpayer funds.
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
Made monopolies illegal.
Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883)
Abolished the spoils system and replaced it with the modern Civil Service system.
Northwestern Europeans who were usually protestant (British, Dutch), Catholics (Irish, German) AND Africans.
The Irish continued to arrive along with Europeans from Southeastern Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, The Ukraine, Poland, Slovenia, Czechoslovakia, etc) AND THE CHINESE.
The growth of cities: high population density.
Extremely poor, over-crowded, and unsanitary neighborhoods in large cities.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Banned the immigration of unskilled Chinese laborers.
Many Christians (Catholics) labored to take care of the Urban poor (ex. YMCA, Salvation Army)
Settlement Houses; Jane Adams
A reformer in Chicago who created the Settlement House by creating Hull House in Chicago (a homeless shelter, but could also provide job training, childcare, and literacy courses)
A photographer who documented the horrible living conditions in NYC tenements.
Organizations that negotiate terms of employment using collective bargaining. (Labor Unions were against the law at the time.)
When employees negotiate a single contract with management that applies to all.
Knights of Labor
Led by Terence Powderly; the first labor union organized on a nationwide basis.
Great Railroad Strike 1877
Great Upheaval 1866
In a single year, the United States was affected by more than 1,500 strikes, or other violent labor altercations.
Haymarket Riot (1886)
When someone threw a bomb at police in Chicago's Haymarket square, public opinion of the labor movement declined.
Pullman Strike (1894)
When American Railway Union President Eugene V. Debs paralyzed train traffic in support of striking workers at the Pullman sleeping car company, the Federal government broke the strike.
Homestead Strike (1892)
When violence erupted at one of Andrew Carnegie's Pennsylvania steel plants, the President ordered the state militia to end the strike.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Allowed only SKILLED workers (ex. printing press, carpenter, plumber, electrician) to be members, and focused only on wages, hours, and working conditions. (Had NO radical or extreme intentions, such as Marxism or Anarchy).
Iron Clad Oaths
Munn vs. Illinois
Wabash vs. Illinois
Interstate Commerce Act
Interstate Commerce Commission
Greenback Labor Party
Election of 1896
William Jennings Bryan
The Cross of Gold Speech
The Wizard of Oz
The Role of Third Parties
Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
Battle of Little Big Horn (1876)
Massacre at Wounded Knee
"Century of Dishonor"
"Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee"
Frederick Jackson Turner