GN423 Exam 2
Terms in this set (25)
a group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing viable offspring. these individuals can live in similar environments or geographic proximity to each other. speciation is the process of a species splitting into multiple.
hybrid vigor. the heterozygous is more fit than either homozygote.
heterosis. the heterozygote is more fit than either homozygote.
prezygotic or postzygotic factors that isolate two or more populations from mating. prezygotic -> prevent the actual mating between species; post zygotic -> prevent the production of viable offspring.
phenomenon that progeny resulting from crosses between genetically distinct individuals exhibit lower fitness than homozygotes. (progeny between closely related parents produces more fit offspring.)
Dobzhansky-Muller model of reproductive isolation
there is an ancestor population with segregating genetic variation. that population subdivides, then population specific mutation become fixed in the respective populations. this leads to incompatible allele combinations in the F1.
if hybrids of one sex are sterile, and hybrids of the other sex are not, then the sterile hybrids are heterozygotes.
any alteration in the genetic makeup or any structure/function by which and organism becomes better suited to its environment.
Wright's F statistic
measures of departure from HWE. FIS -> inbreeding coefficient that measures the individual w/i the subpopulation. FST -> measures overall genetic divergence among subpopulations. subpopulation w/i total. FIT -> overall inbreeding coefficient. individual w/i total.
one way gene flow from the mainland to island.
stepping stone model
gene flow from one island to the next.
infinite island model
gene flow from a ll islands to all other islands.
transfer of alleles from one population to another.
mutation @ a locus that has become fixed through time
mutation that results in no change in the amino acid functionality.
mutation that results in a change in the amino acid functionality.
predicts that substitution rates occur at a constant rate.
mutations with selection coefficients near 0 that are effectively neutral in small populations, but deleterious in large populations.
deleterious mutations are eliminated to preserve the function of protein/DNA sequence. most mutation are probably deleterious, so purifying selection is probably most common.
favorable mutations are selected for, resulting in the substitution of the new favorable allele.
acts to maintain two or more variants @ a locus.
the reduction of variation near a substitution because a beneficial allele was substituted. thus, if there is any variation at a substituted site, we can conclude it arose recently.
in positive selection, if a positive allele is selected for, neutral sites linked to it on the chromosome are passively carried on as well, reducing variation @ these linked sites.
tests of selection
tree that aims to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a group of taxa.
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