Also called the Black Death; is believed to be the deadly disease that spread through Asia and Europe and killed more than a third of the people in parts of China and Europe. Spread due to trade routes that were reinstated by the Mongols.
Major winds in the Indian Ocean that blew into India for half the year, and blew away from India for the other half. Helped facilitate trade in the Indian Ocean.
The Japanese system of decentralized government under a shogun, who exercised actual power while the emperor was reduced to a figurehead-- similar to feudalism in Europe (Ex: Tokugawa shogunate)
A city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside (examples: ancient Greece, Italian peninsula during 600 CE -1450 CE, East Africa, SE Asia, Americas, etc)
The unification or blending of opposing people, ideas, or practices, frequently in the realm of religion. For example, when Christianity was adopted by people in a new land, they often incorporate it into their existing culture and traditions.
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; enhanced literacy
In medieval Europe, an association of men (rarely women), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and created an organized institution to promote their economic and political interests.
A type of labor commonly used in feudal systems in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave or to peruse their a new occupation. This was common in early Medeival Europe as well as in Russia until the mid 19th century.
Little Ice Age
Temporary but significant cooling period between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation.
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state (as part of the tributary system.)
chinampa field system
a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico
Regions held under control of Mongol Khans including the Yuan Dynasty (China), Golden Horde (Russia),and Il-Khan (Middle East)