101 terms

Exam 1

Origin of Life, DNA, Genes, Proteins
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Terms in this set (...)

True or False:
Earth is the only place where the observation of life has occured
True
Which of the following individuals conducted experiments that contributed to the idea of chemical evolution?

a. Alfred Wallace
b. Louis Pasteur
c. Watson and Crick
d. Charles Darwin
e. Miller and Urey
e.
The Earth is ______ years old.
4,600,000,000
Which of the following structures was most likely common to all protocells?

a. Membrane
b. RNA Incorrect
c. Protein
d. ATP
e. DNA
a.
Dr Pollock presented a theory that explains how life began on Earth. (True or False)
False
Ribozymes are

a. DNA that can act as enzymes
b. Proteins that can act as enzymes
c. Nanobots that can act as enzymes
d. RNA that can act as enzymes Correct
d. RNA that act as enzymes
All living species today use ___________ as genomic material.
DNA
All DNA mutations change the protein. (True or False)
False
What is the correct order of the Central Dogma of Biology?
DNA, RNA, protein
Anticodons are found on proteins called tRNAs. (True or False)
True
Which is DNA?

a. ATTGCCGTTTAGCC
b. Met-tRNA, Lys-tRNA, Pro-tRNA, Met-tRNA
c. Methionine-Cysteine-Glutamate-Lysine-Tryptophan
d. AUUGCCGUUUAGCC
a.
The human genome consists of approximately how many genes? Hint: more than a chicken, but less than a microscopic multicellular eukaryote worm.
20,000
Which of the following is the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of RNA from RNA template?

a. DNA-dependent DNA polymerase
b. Methionine-dependent RNA polymerase
c. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
d. DNA-dependent RNA polymeras
c. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
miRNA interfere with the ___________ of mRNA.
translation
How many amino acid coding codons are there?
61
Proteins, mRNA, tRNA, and DNA are found in eukaryotic nuclei. (True or False)
False
Frameshift mutations are caused by base pair substitutions. (True or False)
False
DNA carries out two basic functions in cells: (1) information storage and transfer (genes can be copied and passed to offspring) and (2) the "blueprint" function (genes provide instructions for building proteins). The key process for information storage and transfer to offspring cells is _____.

a. DNA replication
b. transcription
c. translation
d. mRNA processing
a. DNA replication
A gene is a sequence of DNA nucleotide bases that codes for a single protein. Approximately how many nucleotide bases would be required to code for a protein chain that is 100 amino acids long?
300
tRNA molecules work to _____.

a. transcribe DNA to mRNA
b. translate DNA to produce a specific amino acid sequence
c. transcribe the amino acid sequence to DNA
d. translate mRNA to produce a specific amino acid sequence
e. none of the above
d. translate mRNA to produce a specific amino acid sequence
A particular gene does NOT constantly churn out the same protein at all times in every cell. This is true for two reasons. First, _____ can allow one gene to produce several different proteins. Second, genes are constantly being turned on and off through the process of _____.
mRNA reprocessing...gene regulation
What comes first...translation or transcription.
Transcription
The differences between DNA and RNA include...

a. DNA is usually double stranded (duplex); RNA is usually single stranded (simplex).
b. The DNA sugar is ribose; the RNA sugar is deoxyribose.
c. Thymine is found in the RNA nucleotides; Uracil takes the place of thymine in DNA.
d. All of the above.
a.
If the DNA coding strand is ACAGTCGAT, the complementary (non-coding) strand will be
a. ACAGTCGAT.
b. TGTCAGCTA.
c. UGUCAGCUA.
d. None of the above.
b. TGTCAGCTA.
If the DNA coding strand is ACAGTCGAT, the mRNA strand will be
a. ACAGTCGAT.
b. TGTCAGCTA.
c. UGUCAGCUA.
d. None of the above.
c.
DNA polymerase is the enzyme that...
Adds new nucleotides to the growing DNA strand.
Which is the correct genetic sequence?

a. Promotor, initiation code, gene, terminator code, terminator region
b. Promotor, initiation code, gene, terminator region, terminator code
c. Initiation code, promotor, gene, terminator code, terminator region
d. Initiation code, promotor, gene, terminator region, terminator code
b. Promotor, initiation code, gene, terminator region, terminator code
The RNA polymerase

a. Breaks the attachment between the DNA strands.
b. Attaches to the start intron.
c. Brings in the nucleotide alanine.
d. All of the above.
a. Breaks the attachment between the DNA strands.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules
a. Have a midsection known as a codon.
b. Are formed from non-functional mRNA molecules.
c. Pick up specific amino acids and take them to the ribosome.
d. All of the above.
c. Pick up specific amino acids and take them to the ribosome.
Which statement(s) about mutations is/are correct?
a. Any change in the nucleic acid (whether "good," "bad," or "indifferent") is called a mutation.
b. A point mutation involves a complete codon rather than a single nucleotide.
c. A frame shift mutation involves adding or subtracting pairs of nucleotides from the genetic sequence
d. All of the above.
c. A frame shift mutation involves adding or subtracting pairs of nucleotides from the genetic sequence
The DNA is template is used for DNA _____ and RNA_____.
replication....trancription
The site of protein synthesis is...
at the ribsomoes
While one strand of duplex DNA is being transcribed to mRNA:
a. the complementary strand makes tRNA.
b. the complementary strand is inactive.
c. the complementary strand at this point is replicating.
d. mutations are impossible during this short period.
b.
Removing only one base in a DNA sequence:
a. usually has no effect on the organism.
b. could result in a chromosomal mutation.
c. cannot occur without extremes of heat and pressure.
d. can result in a significant change in the information about a protein.
d.
If the DNA gene strand has the base sequence CCA - TAT - TCG, the complementary DNA strand will have the sequence:

a. CCA - TAT - TCG.
b. GGU - AUA - AGC.
c. CCA - UAU - UCG.
d. GGT - ATA - AGC.
d. GGT - ATA - AGC.
A DNA gene strand with the base sequence CCA - TAT - TCG will be transcribed into RNA with the base sequence:

a. CCA - TAT - TCG.
b. GGU - AUA - AGC.
c. CCA - UAU - UCG.
d. GGT - ATA - AGC.
b.
A DNA gene strand with the base sequence CCA - TAT - TCG codes for the amino acid sequence: (consult the Amino Acid - Nucleic Acid Dictionary in your text or lab manual)

a. proline - tyrosine - serine.
b. glycine - isoleucine - threonine.
c. proline- tyrosine - threonine.
d. glycine - isoleucine - serine.
d. glycine - isoleucine - serine.
The mRNA codon CAU will form temporary bonds with the (tRNA or mRNA) (codon or anticodon) (sequence).
tRNA anticodon GUA.
If the DNA base sequence GAG is mutated to GAC (consult the Amino Acid - Nucleic Acid Dictionary in your text)

a. aspartic acid will substitute for glutamic acid in the resulting polypeptide.
b. the resulting protein will be unable to function.
c. there will be no change in the amino acid sequence of the resulting polypeptide.
d. a chromosomal mutation has occurred.
c. there will be no change in the amino acid sequence of the resulting polypeptide.
All existing cells, come from....
preexisting cells.
What were Miller and Urey trying to accomplish in their experiment?
They wanted to produce life from non life.
Ingredients to assemble a living thing....
1. an accumulation of organic molecules
2. enzymes to catalyze reactions
3. DNA to store genetic information and a way to reproduce information
4. something to separate the living thing from the outside environment (cell membrane)
hypthesis
explanation of observations that are testable through experimentation or observation, educated guess
theory
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
Explain Dr. Pollock's hypothesis:
water + elements + energy --> probiotic soup; amino acids, nucleotides, lipids, sugars --> microsphere like proto-cells surrounding more complex; organic molecules like-RNA, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids --> first prokaryotes
Bacteria has DNA (true or false)
false
What nucleotides replaces thymine in RNA?
Uracil
What are the 3 parts of nucleotide structure:
1. pentose sugar (5-carbon sugar)
2. phosphate group
3. nitrogenous base
Name the four nitrogenous bases associated with DNA
Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, Guanine
How many hydrogen bonds are there between Adenine and Thymine?
2
How many hydrogen bonds are there between Guanine and Cytosine?
3
What did Watson and Crick use to discover DNA?
X-ray diffraction
DNA is stored in the...
nucelous
DNA replication occurred in what phase of the cell cycle?
S phase
What enzyme "unzips" the double helix?
DNA helicase
what is a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction, reads template and brings in complementary base?
DNA polymerase
glues together the segmented DNA in the lagging strand
DNA ligase
how many genes are in humans?
about 19,000
turning on and turning off of specific genes
gene expression
if a gene is turned off then____
its not producing RNA
if a gene is turned on then ____
it is producing RNA
how are genes and proteins related?
Genes make RNA which makes protein
segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome
gene
____ codes for a specific amino acid sequence in a protein or the ____ that helps make the protein
DNA; RNA
list 4 differences between DNA and RNA
DNA is harder to break down, double stranded, deoxyribose (sugar) and the use of thymine instead of uracil
RNA can be found in three main types
mRNA
rRNA
tRNA
contains ribosomes

its a structure separated into 1 large subunit and 1 small subunit
rRNA
code reading appareatus
tRNA
with ______ we start with on double stranded helix of DNA and we end with the same strand +1 of 3 types of RNA
transcription
steps of transcription
initiation
elongation
termination
which step of transcription does this subscribe:
"DNA is unzipped
RNA polymerase, following the DNA track, and pulls in the complementary nucleotides"
initiation
which step of transcription is:
continued until RNA polymerase reaches a stoop
elongation
which step of transcription is:
once it reached the end, the RNA polymerase falls off the track and we are left with one separate strand of RNA and double stranded helix DNA
termination
what does the codon AUG code for?
methionine (start codon)
protein synthesis is also know as
translation
requirements for translation (5)
ribosome (rRNA)
tRNA
mRNA
amino acids
energy
3 steps of translation
initiation
elongation
termination
which step of translation happens inside your cells
initiation
which step of translation:
the catalytic site brings together the amino acids in just the right rotations to decrease the energy needed to make the peptide bond
the first amino acid (methionine) bonds with the next amino acid, and the initiation tRNA detection
the ribosome moves down the mRNA, one codon to the right until reaching the stop codon
elongation
which step of translation:
termination codon is brought in making the entire complex fall off
binding of tRNA formation of peptide bonds continue
termination
four ways cells regulate which protein they make
transcription
translation
modification
degradation
what are four ways to regulate transcription?
turn off individual
condense region of chromosomes
condense entire chromosomes
miRNA (micro RNA) or dsRNS (double-stranded RNA)
region at the end of the gene right before the DNA (exon/intron/exon/intron)
promoter region
any changes in the sequence of bases in DNA
mutation
change in one base pair
can causes a disease if wrong thing is chaged (sickle cell anemia)
when the cell goes through sell division the daughter willl have the mutation permanently
have the most varied effects because a change in the DNA sequence can sill make the same protein
point mutation
3 types of mutations
point mutation
insertion mutation
deletion mutation
can lead to frame shift mutation
new nucleotide base pair inserted into the middle of a gene which then shifts the nucleotides one over causing a different protein to be made
every frameshift will be effected after the insertion in less three nucleotides are inserted in just the right location
insertion mutation
can lead to frame shift mutation
nucleotide base pair removed for the gene which then shifts the nucleotides one over causing a different protein to be made
every frameshift will be effected after the deletion unless three nucleotides are deleted in just the right location
deletion mutation
____ are the source of variation in living things on the planet
mutations
____ are amino acid polymers
proteins
____ catalyze or speed up reactions
enzymes
_____ cause a specific response in cells the receive those hormones
hormones
structure of amino acids
a central/alpha carbon
amino group on the left
carboxyl group on the right
1 "R" group
amino acids are joined by peptide bonds to form____
polypeptides
different sequence of amino acid makes different_____
proteins
3 basic types of amino acids
hydrophilic
hydrophobic
amino acids that form disulfide bridges
4 levels of protein structure
primary
secondary
tertiary
quaternary
the sequence of amino acids linked by peptide bond
primary structure
what level of structure involves coiling of the chain (alpha helix)
ex. tRNA & rRNA
secondary structure
coiling of the coil
tertiary structure
two or more chains together (when they group with other protiens
quaternary structure