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Red Book

Shays' Rebellion

An armed uprising of farmers, led by Daniel Shays, about taxes. This rebellion showed the founders that they needed a stronger central government.

Great Compromise

At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan and smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan. The convention compromised by creating the House (V) and the Senate (NJ), using the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.

Virgina Plan

Based each state's representation in Congress on population. Popular with large states.

New Jersey Plan

Gave every state the same number of representatives in Congress. Popular with small states.

Alexander Hamilton

The Secretary of the Treasury under President George Washington. He supported strong national power. He helped establish the Bank of the United States and put in place tariffs and the controversial whiskey tax to pay off Revolutionary war debt.

Jeffersonian Republicans

One of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jefferson and stemming from the anti-federalists. Members were liberal and mostly made up of the middle class.

Three Fifths Compromise

The agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves.


Supporters of a stronger central government who advocated the ratification of the US Constitution when it was being considered. John Adams and Alexander Hamilton were leaders of these people.

Eli Whitney

American inventer behind the cotton gin and the idea of interchangeable parts.

Erie Canal

The canal between Albany and Buffalo, that allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.

William Lloyd Garrison

Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Seneca Falls Convention

First women's rights convention where women protested the lack of legal and political rights for women and called for women's sufferage.

Mexican American War

War between Mexicans and Americans over the annexation of Texas. After winning, the United States acquired almost one half of the Mexican territory, including California and New Mexico.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Ended the Mexican American War. Under this document, Mexico gave up it's claim to Texas, California and New Mexico. The US paid Mexico $15 million.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.

Bleeding Kansas

Violent events in Kansas Territory by pro- and anti-slavery groups attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state.

Lone Star Republic

Also called the Republic of Texas. Texas won independence from Mexico in 1836 and later voted to be annexed by the US.

Transcontinental Railroad

The railroad that crossed the US, from coast to coast. It was funded partially by the Federal government because the railroad was anticipated to strengthen the US' economic infrastructure.

Morrill Land Grant Act

This act gave states public land that would allow them to finance land-grant colleges specializing in agriculture and mechanical arts.

Homestead Act

Under this act, a settler could pay a small fee and get 160 acres of land, as long as they were 21 years of age or older, or the head of a family. The settlers under the act had to build a house on their claim, live there for at least six months a year, and farm the land for five years.

Andrew Johnson

Vice president who succeeded Lincoln after the assassination. He was a southerner and thus had a very generous Reconstruction plan, he turned a blind eye to the black codes created by new southern governments. He was impeached.

Black Codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves. Included curfews and land restrictions.

Jim Crow Laws

Laws which promoted segregation and worked to restrict the rights of African Americans to use certain schools and public facilities, to vote, and find decent employment.

John D. Rockefeller

He helped to form the Standard Oil Company and made millions while monopolizing the oil industry. He used a trust to get his monopoly.

Andrew Carnegie

Founder of the Carnegie Steel Company. He bought all of the companies needed to produce steel, from the mines that produced iron ore to the railroads that transported it. This practice is vertical consolidation.

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