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77 terms

HAP Ch 10: The Senses Review Cards

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macula lutea
-yellowish spot in the central region of the retina
-includes the fovea centralis which produces the sharpest vision
visual receptors
-modified neurons
-rods & cones
-in the retina
taste cells
-gustatory cell
-group of modified epithelial cells that function as receptors
visceral pain results from what
(1) stimulation of mechanoreceptors
(2) decreased blood flow, causing lower tissue oxygen concentration
(3) accumulation of pain-stimulating chemicals
refraction
-image that forms on the retina is upside down and reversed from left to right
-visual cortex interprets the image in its proper position
rhodopsin
pigment (visual purple) found in rods
macula
tiny structure in the vestibule that contain hair cells that serve as sensory receptors
choroid coat
contains pigments that absorb excess light and help keep the inside of the eye dark
conductive deafness
interference with the transmission of vibrations to the inner ear
taste hair
extend from taste pore and are the sensitive parts of the receptor cells
glaucoma
eye disorder that develops when aqueous humor formation exceeds the rate it is removed causing fluid pressure to rise, squeezing shut blood vessels
characteristics of referred pain
-common in visceral pain
-occurs when you have common nerve pathways that carry sensory impulses from the skin areas as well as the organs causing the cerebral cortex to incorrectly interpret the source of the pain impulses
pupil dilation
-radial muscles of the iris contract
-occurs in dim light
rods
-long, thin projections at their ends
-hundreds of times more sensitive to light and can provide vision in dim light
-produces colorless vision
-provide more general outlines, less precise images
movement of light
cornea > aqueous humor > lens > vitreous humor
accessory organs of the eyes
eyelids, lacrimal apparatus, extrinsic muscles
taste pore
opening on the free surface of the taste bud
photoreceptors
stimulated by light energy
tympanic cavity
air-filled space in the temporal bone
cones
-not as sensitive to light
-produces color vision
-provide sharp images
-pigments: erythrolabe, chlorolabe, & cyanolabe
eardrum
-tympanic membrane
-sound waves enter the external auditory meatus changing the pressure on the eardrum, which moves in response, reproducing the vibrations
sensation
feeling that occurs when the brain interprets sensory impulses
erythrolabe
pigment sensitive to red light waves in cones
aqueous humor
-watery fluid secreted by the inner surface of the ciliary body
-fills the space between the cornea and lens, helps nourish these parts, and aids in maintaining the shape of the front of the eye
chemoreceptor
stimulated by changes in the chemical concentration of substances
structure of the eye
hollow, spherical structure with three distinct layers: inner tunic, middle tunic, and outer tunic
pupil
circular opening in the center of the iris
cornea
-transparent window of the eye
-helps focus entering light rays
-contains few cells and no blood vessels
pain receptors
stimulated by tissue damage
chlorolabe
pigment in cones sensitive to green light waves
sclera
-white portion of the eye
-protect the eye and is an attachment for the extrinsic muscles
mechanoreceptors
stimulated by changes in pressure or movement
lacrimal apparatus
secretes tears that exit through tiny tubes & flows downward and medially across the eye
optic disk
-area where nerve fibers from the retina leave the eye and join the optic nerve
-has no receptor cells and is known as the blind spot
sensorineural deafness
damage to the cochlea, auditory nerve, or auditory nerve pathways
ossicles
increase or amplify the force of vibrations
lysozyme
-tear enzyme
-an antibacterial agent to reduce the risks of eye infections
viewing closer objects
tension relaxes on suspensory ligaments & the elastic capsule rebounds and the lens becomes more convex
acute pain fibers
-thin, myelinated fibers that conduct impulses rapidly and are associated with sharp pain
-usually sensed as coming only from the skin
-seldom continue after stimulus stops
retina
-contain photoreceptors
-also includes: macula lutea & fovea centralis
middle ear
tympanic cavity, eardrum, auditory ossicles, and auditory tube
eyelid
-helps protect the eye
-4 layers: skin, muscles, connective tissue, & conjunctiva
labyrinth
-complex system of communicating chambers and tubes
-includes: osseous labyrinth, membranous labyrinth, perilymph, & endolymph
outer tunic
-also called the fibrous tunic
-includes: cornea & sclera
inner tunic
includes: retina, optic disk, & posterior cavity
middle tunic
-also called vascular tunic
-includes: choroid coat, ciliary body, & iris
external ear
-include: auricle & external auditory meatus
-vibrating objects produce sounds and are transmitted through matter in the form of sound waves
olfactory bulbs
where impulses are analyzed and then additional impulses move through tracts to the limbic system
olfactory stimulation
the shapes of gaseous molecules fit complementary shapes of membrane receptor sites on these receptor cells, so a molecule binding to its receptor site triggers a nerve impulse
taste nerve pathways
sensory impulses travel on fibers of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves into the medullary oblongata from there they go to the thalamus and are directed to the gustatory cortex
5 types of sensory receptors
chemoreceptors, pain receptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and photoreceptors
auditory ossicles
malleus, incus, and stapes
auditory nerve pathways
nerve fibers enter the auditory nerve pathways, which pass into the auditory cortices of the temporal lobes of the cerebrum
cochlea
-function in hearing
-contains: scala vestibuli, scala tympani, round window
olfactory receptor cells
bipolar neurons surrounded by columnar epithelial cells
somatic senses (3 kinds of receptors)
sensory nerve fibers, Meissner's corpuscles, and pacinian corpuscles
organ of Corti
located on the upper surface of the basilar membrane and contain the hearing receptors
vestibule
contains organs of static equilibrium: utricle & saccule
accommodation
ability of the lens to adjust shape to focus
crista ampullaris
sense organs for dynamic equilibrium
iris
-a thin diaphragm made of connective tissue and smooth muscle fibers
-colored portion of the eye
oval window
-an opening in the wall of the tympanic cavity that lead into the inner ear
-vibrations of stapes at the oval window moves a fluid in the inner ear, stimulating hearing receptors
projection
-cerebral cortex sends the sensation back to its apparent source allowing you to pinpoint the area of stimulation
-allows your eyes to see and your ears to hear
semicircular canals
detect motion of the head and aid in balancing the head and body during sudden movement
thermoreceptors
stimulated by changes in temperature
taste buds
special organs of taste on the surface of the tongue, roof of the mouth, and walls of the pharynx
ampulla
swelling in the end of the semicircular canals that contain sensory organs (crista ampullaris)
anosmia
-partial or complete loss of smell
-results from inflammation of the nasal cavity lining from respiratory infection, tobacco smoking, or use of certain drugs
endolymph
fluid in the membranous labyrinth
perilymph
fluid between the labyrinth
cyanolabe
pigment in cones sensitive to blue light waves
chronic pain fibers
-thin, unmyelinated fibers that conduct impulses slower and produce a dull, aching pain
-often difficult to pinpoint and can be felt in deeper tissues as well as the skin
extrinsic muscles
-move the eye in various directions
-include: superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior oblique, and inferior oblique
path of pain nerve fibers
impulses starting from the head reach the brain on cranial nerves all others travel through spinal nerve
pupil contraction
-circular muscles of the iris contract
-occurs in bright light
olfactory receptors
-chemoreceptors
-stimulated when chemicals are dissolved in a liquid
auditory tube
-Eustachian tube
-helps maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrum
-mucous membrane infections of the throat may spread through these tubes and cause middle ear infections