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59 terms

Unit Four: The Industrial Revolution

STUDY
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anesthetic
a drug that causes lack of feeling or awareness
enclosure
ends traditional rights
James Watt
invented the steam engine
smelt
used to produce its metal from its ore
capital
of primary important; a major part in a state, or country
enterprise
an undertaking with purpose, or undertaking
entrepreneur
someone who organizes a business venture
putting out system
a simple method of producing goods
Eli Whitney
inventor of cotton gin
turnpike
the toll road
Liverpool
a large city in northwestern England
Manchester
also a city in northwestern England
urbanization
a process where cities grow, and become more "urban."
tenement
bad houses, where many immigrants lived in
labor union
an organization of workers that tried to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members
Thomus Malthus
stated that the people were growing out of control, so we needed to stop the births
Jeremy Bentham
Utilitarianism creator, and he advocates "the greatest happiness for the greatest number."
utilitarianism
doctrine that the useful is the good
socialsim
a system in which society, (in terms of govern.) owns and controls the means of production
means of production
resources that are essential to the production of goods and services
Robert Owen
a British man who believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperate environment.
Karl Marx
founder of modern communism
communism
a social organization that based on holding all property in common, and ownership as a whole.
Proletariat
the working class
social democracy
a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system
Henry Bessemer
a man who made manufacturing steel more quickly and efficiently
Alfred Nobel
Swedish man who invented the dynamite
Michael Faraday
a English man who discovered electromagnetic induction
dynamo
used for producing electricity
Thomas Edison
inventor of the light bulb
interchangeable parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
assembly line
a line that has a specific order and everyone has a job to do
stock
a supply of something available for future use
corporation
a business firm whose articles of incorporation have been approved in some state
cartel
a formal organization of producers that agree to coordinate prices and production
germ theory
the theory that all contagious diseases are caused by microorganisms
Louis Pasteur
a French chemist, who discovered that heat could kill bacteria
Robert Koch
the first man to isolate a bacterium and a virus
Florence Nightingale
founder of modern nursing
Joseph Lister
English surgeon; first to use antiseptics
urban renewal
the clearing and rebuilding and redevelopment of urban slums
mutual-aid society
self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers
standard of living
the quality of life based on the possession of necessities;
cult of domesticity
idealized view of men going out to work, while women stay out home, taking care of children
temperance movement
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
Elizabeth Cady
organizes women's rights convention
Stanton
helped organize the first women's rights convention
womens suffrage
women being able to vote
sojourner truth
freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women
John Dalton
developed modern atomic theory
Charles Darwin
English scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection
racism
abusive behavior towards members of another race
social gospel
movement that urged Christians to social service
romanticism
a movement in literature and art that celebrated nature rather than civilization
realism
accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth; "realizing the truth"
Charles Dickens
English writer who wrote Oliver Twist
impressionism
an artistic movement to capture an impression of the piece they were drawing
Claude Monet
a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism,"
Vincent ban Gogh
post-impressionist