17 terms

9th Grade World History Midterm: Set 5

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Hieroglyphics
(Egypt) Early form of writing. They could represent actual objects or syllables in the form of symbols. They were first written on stone tablets, but were later written on papyrus scrolls.
Shang Dynasty
1700 BC - 1027 BC. 1st dynasty to have any written records. Their capital city was Anyang. Cities were built out of wood & had huge walls surrounding them. There was a sharp contrast between upper & lower class in this dynasty. Families were of central value - the family would pay respects to their paternal ancestors. They connected their god _____ Di with oracle bones. They were later overthrown by the Zhou Dynasty.
Polytheism
The belief in more than 1 god. Sumerians made their gods have human qualities, but they were also immortal & controlled different aspects of nature.
Hammurabi
The king of the Babylonian Empire. After the Amorites invaded Mesopotamia, the Babylonian Empire was created. This Babylonian king had a long list of laws written on stone, and he claimed that the gods gave these laws to him. The laws were often based on the social classes of the victims/perpetrators.
Geography of Greece
- mountainous: divided the land into different regions; mountains didn't make good land for farming, so Greeks needed to trade to get food & other resources.
- On Mediterranean Sea
- 2000 islands in Aegean & Ionian Seas. Greeks never lived more than 85 miles from the coastline.
Trojans
Greek army that battled with the Mycenaeans for 10 years because a Trojan prince kidnapped Helen, the wife of a Mycenaean king. Fought a war (Trojan War) in the 1200's BC - historians believed this war was a fictitious occurrence, but they later found evidence proving otherwise.
Alexandria
A city established on the Nile by Alexander the Great. It served as the main trading center during Hellenistic Culture. It has various attractions such as museums & a library.
Anatolia
Huge peninsula in modern-day Turkey in the Black & Mediterranean Seas; also a high rocky plateau rich in lumber & agriculture. It was occupied by the Hittites around 2000 BC. This place was where the Persian War began - Persians invaded the Greek area & conquered it. Then, Athens sent troops in their famous phalanx formation and defeated Persia.
City-State
(aka - polis) Consisted of city & surrounding area. Each one had an aristocracy, monarchy or oligarchy. The acropolis was where citizens met up to discuss government related issues.
SPARTA
City-state located in the Southern part of Greece. It was admired for its government style (oligarchy, monarchy, aristocracy & democracy). Women had some rights in this city-state. Centered around its military. Their economy thrived on their slaves (called Helots). Spartan children (boys) went to school at 7 years old and learned to put their military training/army above all else.
Persian Empire
Led by Darius the Great. This empire is east of Greece. Over a land dispute, they warred with Athens (mainly). They were eventually defeated by Athens.
Civil Service Examination
Test used to fill government posts that was used under the Han Dynasty. It tested applicants on Confucianism. Anyone could take the test, but only the wealthy were well educated, so only they had a real chance of passing the exam.
Silk Roads
Ancient trade network of caravan tracks across steppes & deserts of central Asia. Spurred by the worldwide desire for silk & was how the Chinese commerce expanded through Asia, India and to Rome. This route went for 6000 miles from Chang'an to Byzantium.
Pharaoh
(Egypt) Kings who were considered gods. They ruled their empire with theocracy. They had an eternal life force (called Ka) - since they reigned forever, extravagant pyramids were built in their honor. They were mummified after death to preserve their bodies.
Wu-wei
Method through which Dao is achieved; non-action. People should not do useless acts or acts that contradict nature.
Guanyin
Female Bodhisattva who became widely worshipped in Buddhist temples throughout China. In buddhism, Guanyin is the Chinese Bodhisattva for compassion.
Mita
(Incan civilization custom) Labor tribute that required all able bodied citizens to work for the state a certain # of days each year.