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Forensics Chapter 2 Test Review
Terms in this set (38)
Which is generally more reliable, testimonial evidence or physical evidence?
What other term is used for physical evidence?
Can class evidence have probative value?
Yes, if there is enough of it.
Can individual evidence have probative value?
Are probability and statistics important when discussing the significance of circumstantial evidence?
How can we tell if a questioned sample is relevant to a crime?
Comparison of a reference sample.
Is blood typing considered an individual or class characteristic?
Are fingerprints considered individual or class characteristics?
Which historical case is also known as the Wood Chipper Case?
(Richard Crafts) - page 49
What is testimonial evidence?
Statements made under oath.
What factors can affect the reliability of eyewitness accounts?
Lighting, nature of crime, prior relationships, prior identification or failure to ID, outside influence, etc.
What is the significance of the Ronald Cotton case?
The reliability of eyewitness testimony.
What is physical evidence?
Any object or item relevant to a crime.
What can evidence with class characteristics be used to do?
Narrow down suspects and find individual evidence.
What does probative mean?
Ability to prove something.
Where do known or control samples come from?
Proven or known sources.
Is physical evidence always individual evidence?
How can class evidence be used to narrow a field of suspects?
It can eliminate evidence that is not relevant.
What is the significance of the Helle Craft case?
They only found traces of her and were able to link individual evidence without the presence of a body.
If a forensic scientist can piece together broken pieces of glass from a bottle that was used as a weapon, what kind of characteristics does it have, individual or class?
What is the difference between class and individual evidence?
Class evidence is general and individual is more specific.
Which type of evidence has more probative value, class or individual evidence?
What can a piece of evidence with individual characteristics do?
Link one or a very small number of suspects to a particular crime.
What word do we use for evidence that does not prove a fact, but can provide a basis of inference?
What type of evidence implies a fact or event without actually proving it?
What type of evidence can be linked to a unique, single, specific source?
What type of evidence has characteristics common to a group of similar objects?
What type of evidence, also known as real evidence, can be tangible items that tend to prove some material fact?
features that are typical of a group.
evidence based on suggestions rather than personal knowledge or observation
material that is similar to the questioned and known samples
witness testimony that relates not what he or she saw, or knows personally, but what others have said. The knowledge is dependent on the credibility of the person who first made the statement.
evidence providing only a basis for interference about the disputed fact.
material that can be related to a single source.
tangible items that tend to prove some material fact.
the ability of evidence to prove something that is material to a crime.
material that has been collected from a known location, but is of UNKNOWN origin.
what is said in court by a competent witness.
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