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argues that if a whole unit has a quality, then each part must have that quality.

appeal to people

argues that since most people do something, you should too.

False Cause

concludes that since two incidents happened at about the same time, one event caused another.

Hasty Generalization

judges a group by the actions or appearance of one, or a few, members of that group.


assumes that because every part has a characteristic, the whole unit will also have that characteristic.

Appeal to Authority

uses the testimony of an expert who is not an expert on the subject being discussed.

Appeal to Force

convinces by arousing fears.


uses ambiguous words, which cloud meaning.


uses information that has not ben proven to be either true or false.

False Dilemma

offers fewer options than really exist.

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