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adolescent egocentrism

a characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people (age 10 to 13) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others

personal fable

an aspect of adlolescent egocentrism characterized by an adolescent's belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone els's

invincibility fable

an adolescent's egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high speed driving

imaginary audience

the other people who, in an adolescent's egocentric belief, are watching and taking note of his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior. this belief makes many teenagers very self conscious

formal operational thought

in piaget's theory, the fourth and final stage of cognitivedevelopment, characterized by more systematic logical thinking and by the ability to understand and systematically manipulate abstract concepts

hypothetical thought

reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality

deductive reasoning

reasoning from a general statement, premise, or pirnciple, throuhg logical steps,to figure out specifics.

inductive reasoning

reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to reach a general conclusion

dual- process model

the notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli

intuitive thought

thought that arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation, and is influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions

analytic thought

thought that results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts. Analytic thought depends on logic and rationality

sunk cost fallacy

the mistaken belief that if moeny, time, or efort that cannot be recovered has already been invested in some endeavor, then more should be invested in an effort to reach the goal. because of this fallacy, people spend money continuing to try to fix a "lemon" of a car or sending more troops to fight a losing battle

base rate neglect

a common fallacy in which a person ignores the overall frequency of some behavior or characteristic in making a decision.

secondary education

literally the period after primary education and before tertiary education *college". it usually occurs from about age 12 to 18, although there is some variation by school and by nation

middle school

a school for children in the grades between elementary and high school. Usually begins with grade 5 or 6 and ends with grade 8

digital divide

the gap between people who have access to computers and those who do not, often a gap between rich and poor. in the united states and most other developed nations, this gap has now been bridged as computers have become almost universally present in schools and libraries.


bullying that occurs when one person spreads insults or rumors about another by means of e- mails, text messages, or anonymous phone calls or or posts embarrassing videos of the victim on the internet.

high- stakes test

an evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure. If a single test determines whether a student will graduate or be promoted, that is a high- stakes test

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