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(Cl-), anion. Required for hydrochloric acid, fluid balance, and pH. Most abundant anion in ECF.

Normal Serum Values

96 - 106 mEq/L (96 -106 mmol/liter)

Dietary Sources of Chloride

(fruits) dates, bananas, (dairy) cheese, milk, (veggies) canned veggies, soup, spinach, celery, olives, rye, (meat, fish, poultry) eggs, crabs, fish, turkey


Follows Na to maintain neutral ions, electrogenic secretion out of cells.


Regulated by Kidneys

Chloride Imbalances

Typically associated with Sodium imbalances


Causes: Vomiting or excessive nasogastric or fistula drainage due to loss of hydrochlorice acid. When serum chloride levels metabolic alkalsis results as the body adapts by increasing reabsorption of the bicarbonate ion to maintain electrical neutrality.


usually occurs when serum bicarbonate value falls or sodium level rises

Signs and Symptoms

Hypochloremia and Hyperchloremia rarely occur as a single disease process but are commonly associated with acid-base imbalance

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