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cell junctions

Communication between cells; binding of cells in tissues

cell-cell recognition

two cells in an animal may communicate by interaction between molecules protruding from their surfaces

paracrine signaling

a secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator into the extracellular fluid

synaptic signaling

a nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, stimulating the target cell

hormonal signaling

specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids, often the blood, hormones may reach virtually all body cells


a signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape


conversion of one form of energy into another


catalysis by an enzyme, rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, or activation of specific genes in the nucleus

intracellular receptor proteins

found in either they cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells

G-protein-linked receptor

a plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a protein called a G-protein

G-protein de-activated

GDP is bound to the G protein

G-protein activated

when GTP displaces GDP


functions as a GTPase enzyme

receptor tyrosine kinases

Has ability to trigger more than one signal transduction pathway at once


an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups


a molecule composed of two monomers

ligand-gated ion channel

a type of membrane receptor, a region of which can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shape
- very important in the nervous system
-controlled by electrical signals and ligands

protein kinase

An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein

cyclic AMP

second messenger made from ATP. G proteins activate adenyl cyclase which makes cAMP from ATP

second messengers

A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein

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