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two cells in an animal may communicate by interaction between molecules protruding from their surfaces
a secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator into the extracellular fluid
a nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, stimulating the target cell
specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids, often the blood, hormones may reach virtually all body cells
catalysis by an enzyme, rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, or activation of specific genes in the nucleus
a plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a protein called a G-protein
ligand-gated ion channel
a type of membrane receptor, a region of which can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shape
- very important in the nervous system
-controlled by electrical signals and ligands
An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein
second messenger made from ATP. G proteins activate adenyl cyclase which makes cAMP from ATP
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