Communication between cells; binding of cells in tissues
two cells in an animal may communicate by interaction between molecules protruding from their surfaces
a secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator into the extracellular fluid
a nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, stimulating the target cell
specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids, often the blood, hormones may reach virtually all body cells
a signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape
conversion of one form of energy into another
catalysis by an enzyme, rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, or activation of specific genes in the nucleus
intracellular receptor proteins
found in either they cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells
a plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a protein called a G-protein
GDP is bound to the G protein
when GTP displaces GDP
functions as a GTPase enzyme
receptor tyrosine kinases
Has ability to trigger more than one signal transduction pathway at once
an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups
a molecule composed of two monomers
ligand-gated ion channel
a type of membrane receptor, a region of which can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shape
- very important in the nervous system
-controlled by electrical signals and ligands
An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein
second messenger made from ATP. G proteins activate adenyl cyclase which makes cAMP from ATP
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein
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