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history chapter five
Terms in this set (50)
federal convention met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.
James Madison's proposal for a bicameral legislature with representatives based on population.
New Jersey Plan-
William Paterson's proposal for a unicameral legislature with each state having only one vote.
Congress- has two parts, the Senate and the House of Representatives.
the legislative, or lawmaking, branch of our national government. shares power with the President and the Supreme Court. Congress
a compromise between the Virginia and New Jersey plans for a bicameral legislature; each state would have equal representation in the senate and varied representation in the House of Representatives based on the state's population.
House of Representatives-
one of the two houses of the United States Congress. People in House of Rep are chosen every two years as stated in the Constitution by the people who populate the states. A person, in order to be elected in the House of Rep, has to be at least twenty-five years of age and must have been a U.S citizen for the past seven years. They can choose their speaker, other officers and they have the Power of Impeachment.
one of the two houses in the United States Congress. Voters elect two senators from each state without the dependency of the size of the state or population in it. They are elected for six years and each senator has exactly one vote. The senate is divided into three classes; No person can be a senator without being thirty years of age and having been a citizen for at least nine years.
Three- fifths compromise-
a compromise in which each enslaved person would be counted as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of legislative representation.
describes the purpose of the government as set up by the constitution.
Separation of powers-
a principle that divides power among the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government.
Checks and balances-
a system in which each branch of government has the power to monitor and limit the action of the other two branches.
a vote that blocks a decision or a right to prohibit or reject a proposed act.
this power is given to the President of the United States of America. He holds office during the term of four years. The president is the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States of America. Reprieves and Pardons for offences against the Unites States of America except in the case of Impeachment.
establishes Constitution, Federal Laws and treaties that the Senate has ratified as the Supreme Court, or highest, law of the land. A state judge must overturn a state law that comes in challenge with the Constitution or federal law.
granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out.
Federal System (Federalism)
a political system in which power is shared between the national government and state governments.
An official approval.
ones who favored the ratification of the Constitution.
these were the "critics" of the constitution who denounced it as a retreat from liberty won from Britain.
regulate interstate and foreign trade, declare war, create and maintain armed forces, establish foreign policy, create federal courts, make copyright and patent laws, establish postal offices, coin money, set standard for weights and measures and admit new states.
regulate trade within state, maintain schools, establish local governments, make laws about marriage and divorce, conduct elections, provide for public safety and create corporation law.
provide for public welfare, administer criminal justice, charter banks and borrow money, levy and collect taxes.
Bill of Rights-
written list of freedoms guaranteed to citizens by the government.
a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from Connecticut. helped draw up the Articles of Confederation, and he served as one of the most important members of the Constitutional Convention. worked at the Constitutional Convention to devise a plan as to a compromise for the representation for the small and large states.
presiding officer of the convention, federalist
one of the Convention's leading thinkers. very conservative in principles. didn't like democracy, preferred the British constitution
concluded that that only a strong nation could save the states m their own democratic excesses. favored republicanism rather than a model after the British system.
worried that the Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights and had no limit to how many times one could serve in office. led the State Department-
Why was it necessary to hold a Constitutional Convention
Because of the weaknesses of the articles of confederation and shays rebellion
What were the major issues that the Constitutional Convention had to consider and resolve
• Congress could not levy taxes,
• congress was powerless to regulate interstate commerce and foreign trade
• each state had only one vote in congress, regardless of its size
• a two thirds majority (9 out of 13 states) was required to pass laws
• Articles could only be amended with the consent of all states
• No seprate branch to enforce acts of congress
• No system of federal courts
What were the main differences between the Virginia and New Jersey Plans in terms of: Congress, representation, the presidency, taxation
TOPIC VIRGINIA PLAN NEW JERSEY PLAN
Congress A Government that was divided into three branches; the legislative, executive and judicial
Bicameral legislature (with House of Representatives and Senate)
Judiciary- Federal Courts
The National Congress has the power to veto any state law Gave Congress the power to regulate commerce and collect taxes
Kept unicameral legislature representing states as equals
No power to veto state laws
Representation Number of Representatives and Senators were based on the state's population Representation is equal for all states
Presidency President would have term of seven years, could not be elected a second time
President would command armed forces and manage foreign relations
President would appoint all judiciary and executive officers Preserved an executive committee rather than adopting singular president
Taxes Strong National Government would have the ability to make and enforce laws and collect taxes Congress had the power to regulate commerce and collect taxes
Make a two column chart in which you list Alexander Hamilton's ideas about government in one column and James Madison's in the other
TOPIC ALEXANDER HAMILTON JAMES MADIOSN
Ideas on Government Disliked democracy, praised British Constitution (including inherited House of Lords and King)
Thought balance of Government should be a combination of aristocracy, monarchy and republicanism
He believed that a strong central government would have real power to command its citizens and impress foreign empires Favored republicanism rather than a constitution modeled after the British system
Madison wanted to design a government that was strong and based on republicanism
Madison thought that a large and diverse republic would preserve the common good
How did the Constitutional Convention deal with the issue of slavery, What advantage did this give the southern states over the northern states?
The southern states feared domination by the northern states because they had more free people and they also worried that the domination of the northern states would threaten the slave system In fear that the southern voters would reject a constitution that threatened slavery, the three- fifths compromise, which counted each slave as three fifths of a person, was established Because of this clause, the southern states had more seats in Congress and more power when it came to electing Presidential status The constitution discouraged the congress from stopping the importation of slaves for twenty years and it also required all states to return fugitive slaves back to their original owners
How did the Great Compromise settle the problem of large vs small states The presidency Taxation
The Great Compromise settled the problem of small verses large states in two ways:
the number of Representatives were based on the state's population that the senate's representation is equal for all states
One powerfull president in the executive branch
The delegates to the Convention drew a distinction between a republic, which they supported, and democracy, which they feared How did they combine elements of each
They combined elements of democracy and republicanism by compromising between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan by supporting a system known as federalism, where the governmental power was divided amongst the federal and state government
Deals with legislative branch, including the Congress and the two houses in the contained in the Congress; the House of Representatives and the Senate deals with elections and meetings, legislative proceedings, compensation, immunities and disabilities of members, revenue bills and president's veto, powers of Congress, powers denied to Congress and powers denied to the states
Executive Branch President and Vice president, powers of the President, duties of the President and Impeachment
what article? Judicial Branch; courts, terms of office, jurisdiction, and treason
Relations among States Deals with faith and credit, privileges and immunities of citizens, new states and territories and protection afforded to the states by the nation
Provision for Amendments
National debts, Supremacy of National Law and Oath
Ratification of the Constitution
What were the main differences between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists during the ratification process
One of the major differences between the federalists and the anti-federalists was that the federalists favored a strong government; they stressed the weaknesses of the Articles They argued that only a new government based on the initial proposed constitution could overcome the difficulties faced by the newly formed nation The anti- federalists on the other hand feared a strong national government They disliked the lack of bill of rights, they found that the constitution increased the powers of the central government and provided a more elitist government by focusing power at the hands of a few people keeping it far from the mass of the people
How did the Preamble to the Constitution establish the principle of popular sovereignty What did it state was the document's purpose
"We the People" these words announce that the people of the United States are sovereign or the government receives its power from their people and can continue to govern only with their consent
What were the main ways that the Constitution differed from the Articles of
1 Designed a loose confederation of the thirteen states
2 Federal government consisted of a congress of delegates chosen by state legislatures rather than voters
3 There was no Executive branch or President; instead their executive power was spread out among several committees of congressmen
4 Powers of Congress (limited) - declare and conduct war and to negotiate peace, to regulate foreign affairs and to administer relations with Indians 5 Created Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches
6 Federalism divided government power between the federal government and state governments
7 Executive Branch had a powerful President
8 Powers of Congress- to collect taxes and etc to pay debts, and provide for common defense and general welfare, to borrow money from the credit of the USA, to regulate commerce, to establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization and uniform laws on bankruptcies and etc
Describe the system of checks and balances in the Constitution: President on Congress; Congress on President; President and Congress on Supreme Court; Supreme Court on President and Congress
The constitution limits the power of the governments by checks and balances President on Congress: the Congress has the power to enact laws while the President has the power to veto them Congress on President: two- thirds majority in both houses of Congress has the power to override the President's veto President and Congress on Supreme Court: Supreme Court is appointed by the president Those appointments have to be approved by Congress Supreme Court on President and Congress: Supreme Court may check Congress by declaring a law unconstitutional
What is the division of powers between federal and state governments
The division of powers between federal and state governments is Federalism In Federalism the powers of states issuing their own paper money or provide debtor relief at creditors expense belonged to the federal government Federalism also grants some powers to the state governments The federal government and state governments hold some overlapping concurrent powers
How can the Constitution be amended
By having 9 out of 13 sates votes
How is the Constitution a "living" document That is, how can our government change to meet new expectation or conditions What are the methods by which the Constitution can be changed
Our government can change to meet new standards by changing or adding more amendments that fit our new society The method by which the constitution can be changed is that two-thirds of both houses of Congress, meaning that of House of Representatives and Senate, must approve an amendment which can only become a law when it is ratified by three-fourths of the states
List the strengths and weaknesses of our constitutional system
STRENGTHS OF CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM
Popular Sovereignty- the people can decide how much power they want to invest in the government
Limited Government- The government only has the powers the Constitution gives it They cannot abuse their power/ is not given unnecessary power
Separation of Powers- the government's power is divided among three branches The government can focus on different key topics without deviating from one important topic
Federalism- no abuse of power between national government and state governments
WEAKNESSES OF CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM
Popular Sovereignty-people can abuse the power they hold over the government
Checks and Balances- one branch can unnecessarily (for their own advantage) decrease the power of the other two branches, since each single branch has the power to regulate the actions of the other two branches
Representative Government- corrupt elections can lead to power being given to representatives that use that advantage for their own gain
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