34 terms

Environmental Science for AP - Friedland and Relyea Chapter 1

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Environment
Sum of all the conditions surrounding us that influence life.
Environmental Science
Field that looks at interactions among human systems and those found in nature.
System
Any set of interacting components that influence one another by exchanging energy or materials.
Ecosystem
Particular location on Earth whose interacting components include living/biotic components and abiotic/nonliving components.
Environmentalist
Person who participates in environmentalism or a social movement that seeks to protect the environment through lobbying, activism, and education.
Environmental Studies
Environmental science, policies, economics, literature, etc.
Ecosystem Services
Process by which life supporting resources such as clean water, timber, fisheries, and crops are produced.
Environmental Indicators
Describe the current state of an environmental system.
Sustainability
Living on Earth in a way that allows us to use its resources without depriving future generations of those resources.
Biodiversity
Diversity of life forms in an environment. On 3 levels: genetic, species, and ecosystem.
Species
A group of organisms that is distinct from other groups in its morphology.
Speciation
Evolution of new species.
Background Extinction Rate
Average rate at which species go extinct over the long term.
Greenhouse Gases
Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere.
Anthropogenic
Derived from human actions.
Development
Improvement in human well being through economic advancement.
Sustainable Development
Development that balances current human well being and economic advancement with resource management for the benefit of future development.
Biophilia
Love of life.
Ecological Footprint
Measure of how much an individual consumes, expressed in area of land.
Hypothesis
Testable conjecture about how something works.
Null Hypothesis
Statement that can be falsified or proved wrong.
Replication
When scientists take several sets of measurements.
Sample set
Number of times a measurement is replicated.
Accuracy
How close a measured value is to the actual or true value
Precision
How close to another repeated measurement in the same sample are.
Uncertainty
Estimate of how much a measured or calculated value differs from a true value.
Inductive Reasoning
Process of making general statements from specific facts or examples
Deductive Reasoning
Process of applying a general statement to specific facts or situations.
Critical thinking
Question source of information, consider the methods or processes that were used to obtain the information and draw own conclusions.
Theory
Hypothesis that's been repeatedly tested and confirmed with wide acceptance.
Natural Law
Theory to which there are no known exceptions and which has withstood rigorous testing.
Control Group
Group that experiences exactly the same conditions as experimental group except for single independent variable in study.
Natural Experiment
A natural event acts as an experimental treatment in an ecosystem.
Environmental Justice
Social Movement and field of study that works toward equal enforcement of environmental laws and the elimination of disparities whether intended or unintended, in how pollutants and other environmental harms are distributed among ethnic and economic groups within a society.