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21 terms

Muscles of the back

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Origin: trapezius
occiput, ligamentum nuchae & spinous process of C7-C12
Insertion: trapezius
lateral one-third of clavicle, acromion & spine of the scapula
Action: trapezius
UPPER/UNILATERALLY: elevate the scapula (& upwardly rotate), laterally flex head & neck to same side & rotates to opposite side. UPPER/BILATERALLY: extend head & neck.
MIDDLE: adduct the scapula
LOWER: depress the scapula (& upwardly rotates)
Origin: latissimus dorsi
spinous processes of last 6 thoracic vertebrae, last 3-4 ribs, thoracolumbar aponeurosis & posterior iliac crest
Insertion: latissimus dorsi
crest of the lesser tubercle of the humerus
Action: latissimus dorsi
extension, medial rotation & adduction of the shoulder joint (humerus)
Origin: levator scapula
transverse processes of C1-4
Insertion: levator scapula
upper region of medial border & superior angle of scapula
Action: levator scapula
elevate the scapula (& downwardly rotates)
Origin: rhomboids
MAJOR: spinous processes of T2-T5
MINOR: spinous processes of C7-T1
Insertion: rhomboids
MAJOR: medial border of scapula between the spine & inferior angle
MINOR: upper portion of medial border of scapula, across from spine
Action: rhomboids
adduct the scapula (& downwardly rotates)
Origin: spinalis (erector spinae)
lumber, thoracic & cervical spinous process
Insertion: spinalis (erector spinae)
thoracic spinous processes up to C2
Action: spinalis (erector spinae)
UNILATERALLY: lateral flexion of the spine to the same side
BILATERALLY: extension of the spine
Origin: longissimus (erector spinae)
sacrum, iliac crest to thoracolumber aponeurosis to transverse processes of upper 5 thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: longissimus (erector spinae)
ribs, thoracic & cervical transverse processes up to mastoid process
Action: longissimus (erector spinae)
UNILATERALLY: lateral flexion of the spine to the same side
BILATERALLY: extension of the spine
Origin: iliocostalis (erector spinae)
sacrum, iliac crest to thoracolumbar aponeurosis to ribs
Insertion: iliocostalis (erector spinae)
lumbar to cervical transverse processes to ribs
Action: iliocostalis (erector spinae)
UNILATERALLY: lateral flexion of the spine to the same side
BILATERALLY: extension of the spine