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147 terms

World Regional Geography - Middle East & Nth Africa, Ch 6

Source in whole or in part from Fundamentals of World Regional Geography, 2nd edition, by J. J. Hobbs; and some of my own notes
STUDY
PLAY
anti-Semitism
Anti-Jewish sentiments and activities.
archipelago
A chain or group of islands.
basin irrigation
The ancient Egyptian system of cultivation using fields saturated by seasonal impoundment of Nile floodwaters.
bazaar (suq)
The central market of the traditional Middle Eastern city, characterized by twisting, close-set lanes and merchant stalls.
carter doctrine
President Jimmy Carter's declaration, following the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, that the United States would use any means necessary to defend its vital interests in the Persian Gulf Region. The "vital interests" were interpreted to mean oil, and "any means necessary" interpreted to mean that the United States would go to war with the Soviet Union if oil supplies were threatened.
chokepoint
A strategic narrow passageway on land or sea that may be closed off by force or threat of force.
crusades
A series of European Christian military campaigns between the 11th and 14th centuries aimed at recapturing Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Diaspora
The scattering of the Jews outside Palestine beginning in the Roman Era.
drought avoidance
Adaptations of desert plants and animals to evade dry conditions by migrating (animals) or being active only when wet conditions occur (plants and animals).
drought endurance
Adaptations of desert plants and animals to tolerate dry conditions through water storage and heat loss mechanisms.
energy crisis
The petroleum shortages and price surges sparked by the 1973 oil embargo.
fertile crescent
The arc-shaped area stretching from southern Iraq through northern Iraq, southern Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and western Jordan, where plants and animals were domesticated beginning about 10,000 years ago.
final status issues
Issues deferred to the end of the Oslo Peace Process between Israel and the PLO. Finally dealt with at Camp David in 2000, they included the status of Jerusalem, the fate of Palestinian refugees, Palestinian statehood, and borders between Israel and a new Palestinian state. The negotiations broke down over these.
fossil waters
Virtually nonrenewable freshwater supplies, the product of ancient rainfall stored in deep natural underground aquifers, especially in the Middle East and North Africa.
Gulf War
The 1990-1991 confrontation between a large military coalition, spearheaded by the United States, and the Iraqi forces that had invaded Kuwait. The allies successfully drove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Earlier, the Gulf War had referred to the 1980-1988 war between Iraq and Iran.
Haj
The pilgrimage to Mecca, the principal holy city in the Islamic religion. Every Muslim is required to make this pilgrimage at least once in a lifetime, if possible.
horizontal migration
The movements of pastoral nomads over relatively flat areas to reach areas of pasture and water.
ideology
A system of political and/or economic beliefs such as communism, capitalism, autocracy, or democracy.
law of return
An Israeli law permitting all Jews living in Israel to have Israeli citizenship.
material culture
The items that can be seen and associated with cultural development, such as house architecture, musical instruments and tools. It adds considerable personality to cultural identity.
medina
An urban pattern typical of the Middle Eastern city before the 20th century.
Middle Eastern ecological trilogy
The model of mostly symbiotic relations among villagers, pastoral nomads, and urbanites in the Middle East.
occupied territories
The territories captured by Israel in the 1967 War: the Gaza Strip and West Bank, captured respectively from Egypt and Jordan, and the Golan Heights, captured from Syria.
oil embargo
The 1973 embargo on oil exports imposed by Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) against the United States and the Netherlands.
Palestine Liberation Organization
The Palestinian military and civilian organization created in the 1960s to resist Israel and recognized in the 1990s as the sole legitimate organization representing official Palestinian interests internationally.
patrilineal descent system
A kinship naming system based on descent through the male line.
perennial irrigation
The year-round irrigated cultivation of crops, as in the Nile Valley following construction of barrages and dams.
Pillars of Islam
The five fundamental tenets of the faith of Islam.
pivotal countries
Those countries whose collapse would cause international refugee migration, war, pollution, disease epidemics, or other international security problems.
qanat
A tunnel used to carry irrigation and drinking water from an underground source by gravity flow. Also known as foggara or karez.
Palestinian right of return
The Palestinian Arab principle that refugees (and their descendants) displaced from Israel and the Occupied Territories in the 1948 and 1967 wars be allowed to return to the region.
salinization
The deposition of salts on, and subsequent fertility loss in, soils experiencing a combination of overwatering and high evaporation.
sand sea
A virtual ocean of sand characteristic of parts of the Middle East, where people, plants, and animals are all but nonexistent.
sedentarization
Voluntary or coerced settling down, particularly by pastoral nomads in the Middle East.
segmentary kinship system
The organization of kinship groups in concentric units of membership, as of lineage, clan, and tribe among Middle Eastern pastoral nomads.
Shi'a Islam
The branch of Islam regarding male descendants of Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, as the only rightful successors to the Prophet Muhammad.
shifting cultivation
A cycle of land use between crop and fallow years that is needed to work around the infertility of tropical soils. After clearing tropical forest, a farmer may get only a few years of crops before there is no fertility in the soil and must move on to clear more land. In the meantime, forest reclaims the previously farmed plots.
sovereign state
A political unit that has achieved political independence and maintains itself as a separate unit.
Sunni Islam
The branch of Islam regarding successorship to the Prophet Muhammad as a matter of consensus among religious elders.
vertical migration
Movements of pastoral nomads between low winter and high summer pastures.
westernization
The process whereby non-Western societies acquire Western traits, which are adopted with varying degrees of completeness.
Zionist movement
The political effort, beginning in the late 19th century, to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
swidden
type of cultivation, also known as slash-and-burn cultivation, where new lands are not available, and fallow periods on old fields are reduced or eliminated, resulting in soil deterioration.
Saudi Arabia
Name the country labelled A
Kuwait
Name the country labelled B
UAE
Name the country labelled C
Oman
Name the country labelled D
Yemen
Name the country labelled E
Qatar
Name the country labelled F
Jordan
Name the country labelled G
Bahrain
Name the country labelled H
Morocco
Name the country labelled A
Algeria
Name the country labelled B
Tunisia
Name the country labelled C
Libya
Name the country labelled D
Egypt
Name the country labelled E
Sudan (note: before 2011 division)
Name the country labelled F
Turkey
Name the country labelled A
Iran
Name the country labelled B
Afghanistan
Name the country labelled C
Iraq
Name the country labelled D
Syria
Name the country labelled E
Lebanon
Name the country labelled F
Israel
Name the country labelled G
transhumance
The movement of pastoral nomads and their herd animals between low-elevation winter pastures and high-elevation summer pastures. Also known as vertical migration.
Suez Canal
Name the choke point labelled A
Strait of Tiran
Name the choke point labelled B
Strait of Hormuz
Name the choke point labelled C
Bab el-Mandeb
Name the choke point labelled D
Red Sea
The Suez Canal is located between the Mediterranean Sea and what other major water body?
Atlantic, Mediterranean
The Strait of Gibralta is located between which two seas?
Indian, Persian Gulf
The Strait of Hormuz is located between which ocean and which major water body?
Bosphoros
At the choke point between the Black sea and Mediterranean Sea, which is the northern most choke point?
Dardanelles
At the choke point between the Black sea and Mediterranean Sea, which is the southern most choke point?
Bab el-Mandel
Which choke point is located between the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden?
Strait of Hormuz
Which choke point is located between the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean?
The Red Sea
The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean with which sea?
Straight of Hormuz
Oil that leaves Iraq for Europe or the United States must first pass through _______
Mediterranean Sea
The Dardanelles and Bosporus connect the Black Sea with the ________
villager, pastoral nomad, urbanite
What are the three components of the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy?
Egypt, Turkey, Iran
Which are the three countries in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region that have the highest populations?
Along the coast and rivers and in the fertile crescent
Where is the densest population in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?
Nile, Tigris, Euphrates
Which three large rivers are critical in attracting higher population densities than other areas of the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?
agriculture, trade
In the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy, what do the villagers provide?
production, tools, education, trade
In the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy, what do the urbanites provide?
erg, hamada, reg
What are the three primary types of landform in the desert?
animals (sheep, goats, camels, not cattle)
In the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy, what do the nomads provide?
farsi
What language do most people in Iran speak?
Iran
What is Persia now called?
desert, semiarid-steppe, mediterranean
What are the three main climate types in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?
nomadic herding
what is the main land use over the North Africa and Middle East geographical region (in terms of area of land)?
mediterranean, shifting cultivation, subsistence farming
What are the three main land uses in the North Africa and Middle Eastern region (in terms of population)?
Armenian, Christian, Muslim, Jewish
What are the four quarters of Jerusalem
Islam
What is the dominant religion of the region?
Shi'a, Sunni
What are the two main branches of Islam?
Iran
In the North Africa and Middle Eastern region, where are the Shiites mostly located?
afganistan, kuwait, yemen, gulf states
Apart from Iran, in which four areas of the North Africa and Middle Eastern region are there significant Shiite Muslim communities?
profess faith
What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) ______, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) almsgiving, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
five prayers to Mecca daily
What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) ______, 3) almsgiving, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
almsgiving
What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) ______, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
fasting in Ramadan
What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) almsgiving, 4) ______, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) almsgiving, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) ______
origin of old civilizations, domestication
Why is this region known as a cultural hearth?
zagrus mountains of Iran, mesopotamia
where did domestication first occur?
subsistence agriculture
What is the primary land use along the major river systems of the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?
origin of old civilizations
Why is this region known as a cultural hearth?
fertile crescent (iraq and syria)
Where is the primary ancient cultural hearth of this region?
growth since WW11
How does the economic development of Israel differ from most countries in the region? 1) _________, 2) large capital investment from outside, 3) industry and service based economy, not oil or agriculture
large capital investment from outside
How does the economic development of Israel differ from most countries in the region? 1) growth since WW11, 2) _________, 3) industry and service based economy, not oil or agriculture
industry and service based economy, not oil or agriculture
How does the economic development of Israel differ from most countries in the region? 1) growth since WW11, 2) large capital investment from outside, 3) _________
water and oil
Which resources have had an important effect on the regions political and military situation?
Britain, France, Spain, Italy
What were the major colonial powers in this region?
Britain
What was the colonial power operating in Egypt in early 20th Century?
spain, france
What were the colonial powers operating in Morocco in early 20th Century?
France
What was the colonial power operating in Tunisia in early 20th Century?
France
What was the colonial power operating in Algeria in early 20th Century?
France
What was the colonial power operating in Syria in early 20th Century?
Britain
What was the colonial power operating in Iraq in early 20th Century?
Britain
What was the colonial power operating in Kuwait in early 20th Century?
Britain
What was the colonial power operating in Sudan in early 20th Century?
Italy
What was the colonial power operating in Libya in early 20th Century?
established political boundaries without consulting the people
How did the legacy of the major colonial powers effect the present political situation?
usufruct
What is the term for the right to use resources without using it up (commons)
oil
What is a major source of the contrast between rich and poor countries in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?
Cairo
what is the primate city in Egypt
origins on Arabian peninsula
What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) _________, 2) all monotheistic, 3) all text based, 4) revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)
all monotheistic
What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) origins on Arabian peninsula, 2) _________, 3) all text based, 4) revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)
all text based
What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) origins on Arabian peninsula, 2) all monotheistic, 3) _________, 4) revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)
revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)
What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) origins on Arabian peninsula, 2) all monotheistic, 3) all text based, 4) _________
when Russia invaded Afganistan 1979
When was the "Carter Doctrine" promulgated?
1948
When did Israel proclaim itself into existence?
1956
In which year did Britain, France and Israel invade Egypt to keep Suez open when Egypt nationalized it?
1967
In which year was the Six day war Egypt closed the Strait of Tiran to Israel shipping and Israel fought back and won?
1972
In which year did Arab coalition invade Israel on Yom Kippur holiday to get land back they'd lost previously?
1973
in which year was the Energy Crisis when OPEC imposed an oil embargo on the west?
Saudi arabia (sunni) and Iran (shiite)
What are the two primary centers of Islamic political power in the region?
sunni
Saudi Arabia is a centre of political power for which Islamic sect?
shiite
Iran is a centre of political power for which Islamic sect?
shiite
Which Islamic minority controls government in Syria?
student movement that tried to stop civil war
What is the Taliban?
to get money
Why did the Taliban support Al Qaeda?
sunni and shiite differences
Aside from the Arab/Israeli conflict, what are other sources of religions, ethnic and ideological conflict?
right of return for Palestinians
What are major impediments to implementation of the "Two-State Solution"? 1) _________, 2) status of Jerusalem
status of Jerusalem
What are major impediments to implementation of the "Two-State Solution"? 1) right of return for Palestinians, 2) _________
organization of petroleum exporting countries
What is OPEC?
fight against corruption and repressive governments
What is the "Arab Spring"?
Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Libya, Syria
What countries are impacted by the "Arab Spring"?