The ancient Egyptian system of cultivation using fields saturated by seasonal impoundment of Nile floodwaters.
The central market of the traditional Middle Eastern city, characterized by twisting, close-set lanes and merchant stalls.
President Jimmy Carter's declaration, following the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, that the United States would use any means necessary to defend its vital interests in the Persian Gulf Region. The "vital interests" were interpreted to mean oil, and "any means necessary" interpreted to mean that the United States would go to war with the Soviet Union if oil supplies were threatened.
A strategic narrow passageway on land or sea that may be closed off by force or threat of force.
A series of European Christian military campaigns between the 11th and 14th centuries aimed at recapturing Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Adaptations of desert plants and animals to evade dry conditions by migrating (animals) or being active only when wet conditions occur (plants and animals).
Adaptations of desert plants and animals to tolerate dry conditions through water storage and heat loss mechanisms.
The arc-shaped area stretching from southern Iraq through northern Iraq, southern Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and western Jordan, where plants and animals were domesticated beginning about 10,000 years ago.
final status issues
Issues deferred to the end of the Oslo Peace Process between Israel and the PLO. Finally dealt with at Camp David in 2000, they included the status of Jerusalem, the fate of Palestinian refugees, Palestinian statehood, and borders between Israel and a new Palestinian state. The negotiations broke down over these.
Virtually nonrenewable freshwater supplies, the product of ancient rainfall stored in deep natural underground aquifers, especially in the Middle East and North Africa.
The 1990-1991 confrontation between a large military coalition, spearheaded by the United States, and the Iraqi forces that had invaded Kuwait. The allies successfully drove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Earlier, the Gulf War had referred to the 1980-1988 war between Iraq and Iran.
The pilgrimage to Mecca, the principal holy city in the Islamic religion. Every Muslim is required to make this pilgrimage at least once in a lifetime, if possible.
The movements of pastoral nomads over relatively flat areas to reach areas of pasture and water.
A system of political and/or economic beliefs such as communism, capitalism, autocracy, or democracy.
The items that can be seen and associated with cultural development, such as house architecture, musical instruments and tools. It adds considerable personality to cultural identity.
Middle Eastern ecological trilogy
The model of mostly symbiotic relations among villagers, pastoral nomads, and urbanites in the Middle East.
The territories captured by Israel in the 1967 War: the Gaza Strip and West Bank, captured respectively from Egypt and Jordan, and the Golan Heights, captured from Syria.
The 1973 embargo on oil exports imposed by Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) against the United States and the Netherlands.
Palestine Liberation Organization
The Palestinian military and civilian organization created in the 1960s to resist Israel and recognized in the 1990s as the sole legitimate organization representing official Palestinian interests internationally.
The year-round irrigated cultivation of crops, as in the Nile Valley following construction of barrages and dams.
Those countries whose collapse would cause international refugee migration, war, pollution, disease epidemics, or other international security problems.
A tunnel used to carry irrigation and drinking water from an underground source by gravity flow. Also known as foggara or karez.
Palestinian right of return
The Palestinian Arab principle that refugees (and their descendants) displaced from Israel and the Occupied Territories in the 1948 and 1967 wars be allowed to return to the region.
The deposition of salts on, and subsequent fertility loss in, soils experiencing a combination of overwatering and high evaporation.
A virtual ocean of sand characteristic of parts of the Middle East, where people, plants, and animals are all but nonexistent.
Voluntary or coerced settling down, particularly by pastoral nomads in the Middle East.
segmentary kinship system
The organization of kinship groups in concentric units of membership, as of lineage, clan, and tribe among Middle Eastern pastoral nomads.
The branch of Islam regarding male descendants of Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, as the only rightful successors to the Prophet Muhammad.
A cycle of land use between crop and fallow years that is needed to work around the infertility of tropical soils. After clearing tropical forest, a farmer may get only a few years of crops before there is no fertility in the soil and must move on to clear more land. In the meantime, forest reclaims the previously farmed plots.
A political unit that has achieved political independence and maintains itself as a separate unit.
The branch of Islam regarding successorship to the Prophet Muhammad as a matter of consensus among religious elders.
The process whereby non-Western societies acquire Western traits, which are adopted with varying degrees of completeness.
The political effort, beginning in the late 19th century, to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
type of cultivation, also known as slash-and-burn cultivation, where new lands are not available, and fallow periods on old fields are reduced or eliminated, resulting in soil deterioration.
The movement of pastoral nomads and their herd animals between low-elevation winter pastures and high-elevation summer pastures. Also known as vertical migration.
Indian, Persian Gulf
The Strait of Hormuz is located between which ocean and which major water body?
At the choke point between the Black sea and Mediterranean Sea, which is the northern most choke point?
At the choke point between the Black sea and Mediterranean Sea, which is the southern most choke point?
Straight of Hormuz
Oil that leaves Iraq for Europe or the United States must first pass through _______
villager, pastoral nomad, urbanite
What are the three components of the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy?
Egypt, Turkey, Iran
Which are the three countries in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region that have the highest populations?
Along the coast and rivers and in the fertile crescent
Where is the densest population in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?
Nile, Tigris, Euphrates
Which three large rivers are critical in attracting higher population densities than other areas of the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?
production, tools, education, trade
In the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy, what do the urbanites provide?
animals (sheep, goats, camels, not cattle)
In the Middle Eastern ecological trilogy, what do the nomads provide?
desert, semiarid-steppe, mediterranean
What are the three main climate types in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?
what is the main land use over the North Africa and Middle East geographical region (in terms of area of land)?
mediterranean, shifting cultivation, subsistence farming
What are the three main land uses in the North Africa and Middle Eastern region (in terms of population)?
afganistan, kuwait, yemen, gulf states
Apart from Iran, in which four areas of the North Africa and Middle Eastern region are there significant Shiite Muslim communities?
What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) ______, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) almsgiving, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
five prayers to Mecca daily
What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) ______, 3) almsgiving, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) ______, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
fasting in Ramadan
What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) almsgiving, 4) ______, 5) Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
What are the five primary tenets of Islam? 1) profess faith, 2) five prayers to Mecca daily, 3) almsgiving, 4) fasting in Ramadan, 5) ______
What is the primary land use along the major river systems of the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?
growth since WW11
How does the economic development of Israel differ from most countries in the region? 1) _________, 2) large capital investment from outside, 3) industry and service based economy, not oil or agriculture
large capital investment from outside
How does the economic development of Israel differ from most countries in the region? 1) growth since WW11, 2) _________, 3) industry and service based economy, not oil or agriculture
industry and service based economy, not oil or agriculture
How does the economic development of Israel differ from most countries in the region? 1) growth since WW11, 2) large capital investment from outside, 3) _________
water and oil
Which resources have had an important effect on the regions political and military situation?
established political boundaries without consulting the people
How did the legacy of the major colonial powers effect the present political situation?
What is a major source of the contrast between rich and poor countries in the North Africa and Middle East geographical region?
origins on Arabian peninsula
What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) _________, 2) all monotheistic, 3) all text based, 4) revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)
What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) origins on Arabian peninsula, 2) _________, 3) all text based, 4) revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)
all text based
What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) origins on Arabian peninsula, 2) all monotheistic, 3) _________, 4) revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)
revere Abraham (Abrahamic religions)
What are four key similarities between Jews, Christians and Moslems? 1) origins on Arabian peninsula, 2) all monotheistic, 3) all text based, 4) _________
In which year did Britain, France and Israel invade Egypt to keep Suez open when Egypt nationalized it?
In which year was the Six day war Egypt closed the Strait of Tiran to Israel shipping and Israel fought back and won?
In which year did Arab coalition invade Israel on Yom Kippur holiday to get land back they'd lost previously?
Saudi arabia (sunni) and Iran (shiite)
What are the two primary centers of Islamic political power in the region?
sunni and shiite differences
Aside from the Arab/Israeli conflict, what are other sources of religions, ethnic and ideological conflict?
right of return for Palestinians
What are major impediments to implementation of the "Two-State Solution"? 1) _________, 2) status of Jerusalem
status of Jerusalem
What are major impediments to implementation of the "Two-State Solution"? 1) right of return for Palestinians, 2) _________