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i have never studied this thoroughly for anything in euro thus far

nuclear families

families consisting only of parents and their children, with no other relatives

marriage patterns 17th and 18th centuries

married late, after beginning work; married at the age of 25-27

reasons for late marriage

waited until they accumulated enough money to support a family; peasants waited until the death of their fathers to inherit land; in some villages, one needed to request permission to marry

work for young boys

plowed and wove; apprenticeship at 16; moved to cities or large towns to learn trades; joined guilds; poor boys who could not afford apprenticeships worked as servants or farmer's hands

work for young girls

tended cows and spun; apprenticeships as seamstresses and linen drapers; demand for female labor rose; cleaning, shopping, cooking, childcare

problems faced by young female workers

lack of independence; wages paid directly to parents; sexual harassment was a constant threat

birth control

primitive; sheep intestine or burlap condoms used mostly by upper class and prostitutes; coitus interruptus - male withdrawal

illegitimate birth prior to and at the beginning of the 18th century

rare; lack of premarital intercourse; community controls

community controls

priests, elders, parents, landlords; pressured young couples into marrying if a child was conceived out of wedlock; domestic affairs were publicized; adulteresses publicly humiliated

marriage patterns after the late 18th century

young people chose partners for themselves; no longer based on advancing the family socially

illegitimacy after the late 18th century

explosion as young people moved to cities; could no longer be watched closely or pressured into marriage; women had sex with the promise of marriage, men abandoned woman after pregnancy

rise in prostitution

prostitution became more severely punished in 16th and 17th centuries; working women who needed extra money and were faced with unemployment turned to prostitution


high end prostitutes; wealthy protectors provided apartments, servants, and fashionable clothing

same sex relationships

severely punished because they defied the bible; punished by law

nobles involved in same sex relationships

protected by status; as long as they married and produced heirs, nobody punished them for engaging in same sex affairs (ex. King James I)

homosexual subcultures

emerged in Paris, Amsterdam, London; wore women's clothing

same sex relationships among females

less frowned upon; some dressed as men and snuck into armed forces (UM, MULAN...BEST MOVIE EVER)

Ulrika Elonora Stalhammor

served as a man in the Swedish army for 13 years; sentenced to a month in prison

infant mortality

vulnerable to infectious diseases; died of dehydration; women died in childbirth

breast feeding among the lower class

peasant women breast fed; delayed resumption of ovulation; limited fertility; increased infant survival rate; considered undignified by upper class

wet nurse

hired by the upper class or working women; live in or sometimes took child to live with them for two to three years

risks of wet nursing

high level of infant mortality; dangers of travel; lack of supervision; need to share milk between hired baby and wet nurse's own baby; parental indifference to baby's survival


illegal, dangerous, and rare; some women instead hid pregnancies and smothered their infants ---> punishable by death

foundling homes

orphanages; arose in Italy, Spain and Portugal in the 16th century; a popular charity for the wealthy; many orphans still died in foundling hospitals

parent/child relationships

due to high infant mortality rates, parents did not form a strong emotional attachment to children

discipline of children

severe and often physical; inhumane methods such as corsets and swaddling were discouraged after the Enlightenment - encouraged loose clothing

Jean Jacques Roussea's "Emile, or On Education"

advocated breast feeding and natural dress; believed boys should be taught practica skills and girls should be taught domestic skills; women should be destined to child bearing and marriage

elementary schools

taught six to twelve year olds literacy, religion, arithmetic for boys and needlework for girls; religion and education often went hand in hand

Parish Schools in Scotland

Presbyterian Scotland was convinced that the key to salvation was in study of the scriptures

charity schools for poor children

driven by the belief that all people should be able to read the bible

Prussian education

mandatory for all boys and girls

Jean Baptiste la Salle

started Brothers of the Christian Schools

Maria Theresa

compulsory education edict

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