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marriage patterns 17th and 18th centuries
married late, after beginning work; married at the age of 25-27
reasons for late marriage
waited until they accumulated enough money to support a family; peasants waited until the death of their fathers to inherit land; in some villages, one needed to request permission to marry
work for young boys
plowed and wove; apprenticeship at 16; moved to cities or large towns to learn trades; joined guilds; poor boys who could not afford apprenticeships worked as servants or farmer's hands
work for young girls
tended cows and spun; apprenticeships as seamstresses and linen drapers; demand for female labor rose; cleaning, shopping, cooking, childcare
problems faced by young female workers
lack of independence; wages paid directly to parents; sexual harassment was a constant threat
primitive; sheep intestine or burlap condoms used mostly by upper class and prostitutes; coitus interruptus - male withdrawal
illegitimate birth prior to and at the beginning of the 18th century
rare; lack of premarital intercourse; community controls
priests, elders, parents, landlords; pressured young couples into marrying if a child was conceived out of wedlock; domestic affairs were publicized; adulteresses publicly humiliated
marriage patterns after the late 18th century
young people chose partners for themselves; no longer based on advancing the family socially
illegitimacy after the late 18th century
explosion as young people moved to cities; could no longer be watched closely or pressured into marriage; women had sex with the promise of marriage, men abandoned woman after pregnancy
rise in prostitution
prostitution became more severely punished in 16th and 17th centuries; working women who needed extra money and were faced with unemployment turned to prostitution
high end prostitutes; wealthy protectors provided apartments, servants, and fashionable clothing
nobles involved in same sex relationships
protected by status; as long as they married and produced heirs, nobody punished them for engaging in same sex affairs (ex. King James I)
same sex relationships among females
less frowned upon; some dressed as men and snuck into armed forces (UM, MULAN...BEST MOVIE EVER)
Ulrika Elonora Stalhammor
served as a man in the Swedish army for 13 years; sentenced to a month in prison
breast feeding among the lower class
peasant women breast fed; delayed resumption of ovulation; limited fertility; increased infant survival rate; considered undignified by upper class
hired by the upper class or working women; live in or sometimes took child to live with them for two to three years
risks of wet nursing
high level of infant mortality; dangers of travel; lack of supervision; need to share milk between hired baby and wet nurse's own baby; parental indifference to baby's survival
illegal, dangerous, and rare; some women instead hid pregnancies and smothered their infants ---> punishable by death
orphanages; arose in Italy, Spain and Portugal in the 16th century; a popular charity for the wealthy; many orphans still died in foundling hospitals
due to high infant mortality rates, parents did not form a strong emotional attachment to children
discipline of children
severe and often physical; inhumane methods such as corsets and swaddling were discouraged after the Enlightenment - encouraged loose clothing
Jean Jacques Roussea's "Emile, or On Education"
advocated breast feeding and natural dress; believed boys should be taught practica skills and girls should be taught domestic skills; women should be destined to child bearing and marriage
taught six to twelve year olds literacy, religion, arithmetic for boys and needlework for girls; religion and education often went hand in hand
Parish Schools in Scotland
Presbyterian Scotland was convinced that the key to salvation was in study of the scriptures
charity schools for poor children
driven by the belief that all people should be able to read the bible
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