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Biology - LAP 2
Terms in this set (85)
What are the 3 subatomic parts of an atom?
Protons, neutrons, and electrons
Where are protons found and what are their charges?
Protons are found in the nucleus and they carry a positive charge.
Where are neutrons found and what are their charges?
Neutrons are found in the nucleus and they are neutral - they do not have a charge.
Where are electrons found and what is their charge.
Electrons are located outside of the nucleus in electron energy shells and they are negatively charged.
What does the atomic number of an element indicate?
The number of protons in the nucleus.
What does the atomic mass indicate?
The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
How can you find the number of neutrons of an element?
Subtract the atomic number from the atomic mass and that will give you the average number of neutrons found in the element.
What is the formula for how many electrons are each energy level?
2n2 *squared where n represents the period number (or number of energy shell)
How many electrons does it take to fill the 3rd energy shell?
2n2 where n =3. So (3 X 3)= 9 X 2 = 18 electrons to fill the third energy shell.
In the periodic table, what do the periods represent?
The periods (rows) indicate which energy shell is the valence shell - or which energy shell is being filled with electrons.
What do the groups (columns) represent in the periodic table?
Each group in the periodic table has a particular number of electrons in the valence shell. Group 1 has 1 electron, Group 18 has full valence shells.
An element that has 11 protons will have how many electrons?
Elements do not carry charges so they have to have the same number of negatively charges electrons and positively charge protons. If an element had 11 protons, it would have 11 electrons.
What do you call an element that has a different number of neutrons than typically found?
An isotope. Isotopes have atypical numbers of neutrons and they can be radioactive.
C-12: carbon 12 (6 protons, 6 neutrons)
C-14: carbon 14 (6 protons, 8 neutrons & is radio active)
What determines the "behavior" of an atom? Said another way, what determines if and how different atoms will interact with each other?
The valence electrons determine an atom's "behavior". Atoms will interact with each other in such a way as to fill their valence shells; either by accepting, donating, or sharing electrons.
What is an ion?
An ion is a charged atom. It is the result of unequal numbers of protons and electrons.
What is an ionic bond?
When atoms donate or accept electrons they become ions so when one atom donates and another accepts electron(s) it is an ionic bond (ions are created).
What is a covalent bond?
A covalent bond is created when atoms share electrons (rather than donating or accepting electrons outright). The shared electron pair orbits around both nuclei. They share ("co") valence electrons.
What is a polar covalent bond?
It is when the shared electron pair orbits one nuclei more than the other creating an uneven charge along the molecule. This results in part of the molecule being slightly positive (where the electron spend less of its time) and other part being slightly negative (where the negatively charge electrons spends more of it time). Water has polar covalent bonds.
What are the characteristics of matter?
It has mass and takes up space.
Can matter be created or destroyed?
Nope, only transformed.
What is a compound?
A compound is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
What does a chemical formula indicate?
The type and ratio of atoms in a molecule (or compound).
What does the coefficient to the left of a chemical formula indicate?
The number of molecules.
What are physical properties of a substance?
They are characteristics like color, texture, shape, size and quantity. They are changes to the substance that do NOT change the chemical formula of that substance.
What are chemical properties of a substance?
The chemical properties of a substance depends on the arrangement of atoms, the number of valence electrons, and the atoms that make up the molecule.
What are chemical changes in a substance?
Anything that causes a change to the chemical formula of a substance, causing a reactions to occur. This often requires energy - so heat (cooking, burning). Substances may also interact with liquids (water) and gasses (oxygen) around the substance causing changes in the chemical formula
What are isomers?
Substances that have the same chemical formula but have different structural formulas. (transformer analogy)
Butane and isobutene are isomers but they have very different physical properties.
What are the parts of a chemical equation?
The atoms (or molecules) on one side of the arrow that interact with each other are called the "reactants". The atoms (or molecules) on the other side of the arrow are the "products".
What is a balanced equation?
An equation that has the same number of each type of atom on one side of the arrow as there are on the other side of the arrow (reactants/products).
What is a mixture?
A mixture is matter containing two or more substances, which can be present in variable amounts; mixtures can be homogenous (sugar water) or heterogenous (sand and water).
What is a solution?
A solution is when one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance. The solute remains uniformly distributed throughout the solution and will not settle out with time.
What is a solute?
Solutes are the substance being dissolved or is the least abundant component in the solution. In a solution of salt water, the salt is the solute.
What is a solvent?
Solvents are the substance in which the solute is dissolved or the most abundant component in the solution. It is the water in a solution of salt water.
What is a colloid?
A colloid mixture is a homogeneous, non-crystalline substance consisting of large molecules or ultramicroscopic particles of one substance dispersed through a second substance. The particle size is larger than the solute found in a true solution but smaller than the particles found in a suspension.
Colloids include gels, sols, and emulsions; the particles do not settle and cannot be separated out by ordinary filtering or centrifuging like those in a suspension
What is a suspension?
A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation. Usually they must be larger than one micrometer. Unlike colloids, suspensions will eventually settle. An example of a suspension would be sand in water. The suspended particles are visible under a microscope and will settle over time, if left undisturbed.
Between a suspension and a solution, which has the larger particles?
What is being measured with a pH scale?
The concentration of hydrogen (H+) and hydronium (H3O+) ions in a solution. ***
What is the range of the pH scale?
The range of the pH scale is from 0 to 14.
What pH is neutral on the pH scale?
A pH of 7.
When the pH is acidic, the pH is
a) Above pH 7
b) Below pH 7
b) Below pH 7
Which solution has a higher concentration of H+ ions, a solution with a pH of 10 or a pH of 3?
If a substance added to a solution decreases the concentration of H+, that substance is said to be acidic or basic?
What are the products of a chemical reaction when the reactants are an acid and a base?
A salt and water.
What are the 4 major biological macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins
What is the main characteristic of the compounds studied in organic chemistry?
What is special about the carbon atom?
It can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows for many structural configurations.
What is the generic name for the building block of a polymer?
What is a molecule made up of 2 monomers called?
What is a molecule made up of more than 2 monomers called?
What is the process of forming long chains of monomers called?
Monomer > Dimer > Polymer
What is the name of the specific chemical reaction that joins monomers and produces water?
What is the name of the specific chemical reaction that breaks apart larger molecules with water?
What is the monomer (building block) of a carbohydrate?
Monosaccharides (simple sugars)
What are the 3 monomers for carbohydrates?
Glucose, fructose, and galactose
What is the relationship between these 3 simple sugars?
Glucose, Fructcose, Galactose
They are isomers.
What is the use or function of carbohydrates?
They are used as a source of short-term energy and, in the form of starch, provides structural support in plants
What is a disaccharide? Give one example.
Disaccharides are made up of 2 simple sugar monomers. An example would be sucrose, lactose, or maltose.
Give an example of a polysaccharide.
Starch, cellulose, and glycogen
What are lipids made from?
Glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What is the function of lipids?
They are used as a source of long-term energy, as insulation, as protection, found in cell membranes and provide organism with buoyancy.
What are some examples of lipids?
Fats, oil, wax, steroids, cholesterol
What is the monomer (building blocks) for nucleic acids?
What is the function of nucleic acids?
They store and transmit genetic information.
What are two examples of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
Nucleotides are made up of a sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group.
What is the sugar in DNA?
What is the sugar in RNA?
What is the monomer (building block) for proteins?
Amino acids (peptides)
What are the functions of proteins?
Proteins are used in structures, transport, enzymes (end in "-ase"), and hormones. They change the rate of reactions (enzymes), regulate cell processes, give bodies structures, and transport materials into and out of the cell through channels.
What is the basic structure of an amino acid?
Amino acids have an amino groups on one end of the molecule (NH2) and a carboxyl group (COOH) on the other end of the molecule, with a side chain (R) hanging from the carbon molecule.
What is determines the function of a protein?
The shape of the protein. A protein's shape is determined by the reactions between the side chains of the amino acids in the protein (polypeptide).
What is the activation energy of a chemical reaction?
The energy required to get a chemical reaction started.
How are chemical reactions controlled in our cells?
Through the use of proteins called enzymes.
What is the name of the type of reaction when the energy level of the products is lower than the energy level of the reactant and the reaction releases energy?
Exothermic reactions release energy.
What is the name of the type of reaction when the energy level of the products is higher than the energy level of the reactant and the reaction absorbs energy?
Endothermic reactions absorb energy.
What is a catalyst?
A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the reaction's activation energy.
What is an enzyme?
Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts. They speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.
How do enzymes affect chemical reactions?
Enzymes bring reactants together and reduce the energy needed for a chemical reaction. They are specific for a reaction, they are not changed nor are they used up in the chemical reaction.
What is a substrate?
The reactants of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction are known as substrates.
What is an active site?
Active sites are where the substrate(s) bind to the enzyme.
What are coenzymes?
They are non-protein substances that are required for an active enzyme. A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is required for the protein's biological activity.
Enzyme activities are affected by what types of variables?
Temperature and pH
What are the 2 models for how enzymes work?
"Lock and Key" and the "Induced Fit" models
Describe the Lock and Key Model.
The active site on the enzyme and the substrates have complementary shapes - like a lock and key fit.
Described the Induced Fit Model.
This model proposes that the initial interaction between enzyme and substrate is relatively weak, but that these weak interactions rapidly induce conformational changes in the enzyme that strengthen binding.
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