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Terms in this set (52)
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior (behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists)
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain spinal cord to the muscles and glands
neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. the tiny gap at the junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind the receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
"morphine within"-natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
bundled acons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
somatic nercous system
The division of the peripheral nercous system that controls the body;s skeletal muscles. Also calle dthe skeletal nervous sytem
autonamic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic nervous system
the divisionof the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
a simple automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
the body's slow chemical communication hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and aggect other tissues
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just aboce the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress.
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destructionof brain tissue
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity thatsweep across the brain's surface. these waves are measured by electodes placed on the scalp
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
a technique that uses magnetic fields and raido waves that produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy
a technique for revealing bloodflow and therefore brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. these scans show brain function
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival function
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory reveiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emothions and drives
two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotions
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is lingked to emotion and reward
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells coveing the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ulimate control and information-processing center
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body postition
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
area at the front of the parietallobes that registers and provesses body touch and mobemnet sensations
areas ofthecerebralcortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved inhigher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
the brain's ability to change especiallly during childhood by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemishpheres and carrying messages between them.
a condition resulting from surgery that isolatesthe brain's two hemishperes by cutting the fibers connecting them
Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis.
Descartes thought that this structure was the decision-making part of the brain
What does the sensory cortex control?
Mary's doctors performed a brain scan that used a radioactive solution of glucose to trace her brain's activity. Mary had a(n):
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