4. Medication Preparations & Supplies

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

drug form
refers to the type of preparation in which the drug is supplied
route of delivery
the way that drugs are taken into the body
"How Supplied"
This is how the PDR lists the forms of delivery
Cap
Capsule
Elix
Elixir
Gtt
Drop
supp
Suppository
susp
suspension
tab
tablet
IM
intramuscular
IV
intravenous
TOP
topical
PO, po, per os
oral
R
rectal
subcu
subcutaneous
transdermal
-patch containing the medication is applied to the skin
-drug is absorbed through the skin over a prolonged period of time
-easy application
-effective for long periods of time
-consistent blood level of drug
parenteral
refers to any route not involving the GI tract
tablet
-disk of compressed drug
-variety of shapes & colors
-scored or unscored
enteric-coated tablet
-tablet with a special coating that resists disintegration by gastric juices
-coating dissolves further down the GI tract
-never chew or crush
capsule
-drug contained within a gelatine-type container
-easier to swallow than non-coated tablets
-double chamber may be pulled apart to add drug powder to soft food or beverages
timed-released (sustained-release) capsule
-capsule containing drug particles that have various coatings (often different colors) that differ in the amount of time required before the coatings dissolve
-decreases frequency
-do not crush or chew
lozenge (troche)
-tablet containing palatable flavoring, indicated for a local (often soothing) effect on the throat or mouth
-not to be swallowed whole
-no liquids for about 15 minutes after administration to prevent washing of the lozenge contents from the throat or mouth
suspension
-liquid form medication that must be shaken well before use because the drug particles settle at the bottom of the bottle
-drug is not evenly dissolved in liquid
emulsion
liquid drug preparation that contains oils and fats in water
elixir, fluid extract
-liquid drug forms with alcohol base
-should be tightly capped to prevent alcohol evaporation
-should not be available to alcoholics
syrup
-sweetened, flavored liquid drug form
(cherry)
solution
-liquid drug form in which the drug is totally and evenly dissolved
-appearance is clear (not cloudy)
suppository
-drug suspended in a substance, such as coca butter, that melts at body temperature
enema solution
-drug suspended in solution to be administered as an enema
liquid
-drug suspended (suspension, must be shaken before given to a patient) or dissolved (solution) in a sterile vehicle
powder
-drug particles of drugs
-powder itself cannot be injected, must be mixed with a sterile diluting solution
-short life span once mixed
reconstitution
the mixing of a powder drug with a sterile diluting solution
intravenous
-injected directly into a vein
-immediate absorption & availability to major organs renders this route a dangerous one
IV push
-a small volume of drugs (bolus) injected into a peripheral saline lock (PRN adapter) attached to a vein
-Medication can also be injected into a port on a primary continuous injection line
bolus
a small volume of drugs
IV infusion or IV drip
-a large volume of fluids, often with drugs added, that infuses continually into a vein
IV piggyback (IVPB)
-a drug diluted in moderate volume (50-100ml) of fluid for intermittent infusion at specified intervals (q6-8h)
-drug is infused into a port on the main IV tubing or into a rubber adapter on the IV catheter
Intramuscular
-injected into a muscle, by positioning the needle and syringe at a 90° angle from the skin
-absorption is fairly rapid due to the vascularity (presence of many blood vessels) in the muscle
subcutaneous
-injected into the fatty layer of tissue below the skin by positioning the needle and syringe at a 45° angle from the skin
-route of choice for drugs that should not be absorbed as rapidly as through the IV or IM routes
intradermal
-injected just beneath the skin
-needle bevel up & syringe is at a 15° angle
-allergy skin testing
-slow absorption
epidural
-injected into a catheter that has been placed by an anesthesiologist in the epidural space of the spinal canal
intraosseous
-injected directly into the marrow of long bones
-may be used to administer medications during cardiac arrest
intraventricular
-drugs injected directly into the hearts ventricle
-in critical care, antibiotics can be given via an intraventriculostomy tube
intraspinal
-injected into the subarachnoid space (where CFS surrounds the spinal cord)
-anesthetics
intracapsular (intra-articular)
-injected into the capsule of a joint
-reduce inflammation
cream or ointment
-semisolid preparation containing a drug
-external application
-creams & ointments are not the same (dose used differs for each
(if skin is wet-use cream. If skin is dry-use ointment)
Lotion
-a liquid preparation applied externally for treatment of skin disorders
-should be patted on affected skin (not rubbed)
Liniment
-Preparation for external use that is rubbed on the skin as a counterirritant
-creates a sensation to mask pain in the skin or muscles
Dermal Patch
-Skin patch containing drug molecules that can be absorbed through the skin at varying rates to promote a consistent blood level between application times
Eye, ear, and nose drops (gtt)
-drugs in sterile liquids to be applied by drops
(instillation drops)
Eye Ointment
-Sterile semisolid, often antibiotic in nature, for ophthalmic use only
Vaginal Cream
-Medicated creams often of antibiotic or antifungal nature
-Inserted vaginally with a special applicator
Rectal and vaginal suppositories
-Drug suspended in a substance such as cocoa butter, that melts at body temperature for local effect
Douche Solution
-Sterile water often an antiseptic such as povidone iodine solution and sterile water
-Used to irrigate the vaginal canal
Buccal tablet
-tablet that is absorbed via the buccal mucosa in the mouth
-patient is told not to swallow
-tablet is placed between cheek and gums to dissolve slowly
-not commonly used today
Sublingual Tablet
-tablet that is absorbed via the mucosa under the tongue
-patient told not to swallow
-most common is nitrogylcerin
spray or mist
-liquid drug forms may be inhaled as fine droplets via the use of spray bottles, nebulizers, or metered dose inhalers
medicine cup
-paper cups are used for dispensing tablets and capsules
-plastic 1oz cups are used for dispensing oral liquid medications
metal pillcrusher and pill cutter
-used in most institutions
mortar and pestle
-mortar is a glass cup in which tablets may be placed to be crushed using a club-shaped tool (pestle)
ampule
-small glass container that holds a single dose of sterile solution or injection
-must be broken at the neck to obtain the solution
vial
-glass container sealed at the top by a rubber stopper to enhance sterility of the contents
needles
-2 measurements
1. Length (short-3/8) (medium - 1-1/2inch) (long-5 inches)
2. Gauge - the number that represents the diameter of the needle lumen (16=largest & 27=smallest)
syringes
-3 common
1. Standard Hypodermic Syringe
2. Tuberculin Syringe
3. Insulin Syringe
standard hypodermic syringe
-capacity of 2-3mL
-subcutaneous or intramuscular
-10 calibrations per mL
Tuberculin Syringe (TB)
-narrow and finely calibrated
-total capacity is 1mL
-100 fine calibrations
-newborns & pediatrics & intradermal skin tests
Insulin Syringe
-strictly for administration of insulin
-1mL capacity (equivalent to 100 units)
-dual scale (even numbers on one side and odd numbers on the other side
* All insulin dosages should be double-checked by 2 caregivers before administration
Oral Syringes
-disposable plastic syringes with rubber or plastic covers on the tip
Q1: List 10 drug forms given by the oral route.
1. Tablet 2. Enteric-Coated Tablet 3.Capsule 4. Timed-Release (Sustained-released) Capsule 5. Lozenge (troche) 6. Suspension 7. Emulsion 8. Elixir, fluid exract 9. Syrup 10. Solution
Q2: What oral drug form should never have it's coating destroyed by chewing or crushing?
Enteric-Coated Tablet
Q3:What oral drug form might be pulled open to help patients who have difficulty swallowing?
Capsule
Q4: What oral drug form must be shaken well before administering?
Suspension
Q5: List 2 drug forms given by the rectal route.
1. Suppository
2. Enema Solution
Q6: What is one good reason to give medication by the rectal route?
If a patient is ordered to take nothing by mouth
Q7: List 2 drug forms for drugs given by injectable routes.
1. Liquid
2. Powder
Q8: Why are some drugs supplied indiluted in powdered form?
Short life span
Q9: List 8 parenteral routes of administration.
1. Intramuscular 2. Subcutaneous 3. Intradermal 4. Epidural 5. Introsseous 6. Intraventricular 7. Intraspinal 8. Intracapsular (intra-articular)
Q10: List 5 topical drug forms for drugs applied to the skin (dermis).
1. Cream 2. Ointment 3. Lotion 4. Liniment 5. Dermal Patch
Q11: List 7 topical drug forms for drugs applied to the mucosal membranes.
1. Eye, Ear, Nose 2. Eye Ointment 3. Vaginal Cream 4. Rectal and Vaginal Suppositories 5. Douche Solution 6. Buccal Tablet 7. Sublingual Tablet
Q12: What is the name of the route when a pill is placed under the tongue?
Sublingual
Q13: What is the total fluid capacity of a plastic calibrated medicine cup?
1 oz
Q14: How many doses may be given from a glass ampule once it has been broken?
1
Q15: How many doses may be given from a glass vial once the seal has been broken?
1
Q16: What type of contents may be found in a glass vial?
Solution or Powder
Q17: What are the two measurements used for medication needles?
Length and Gauge
q18: What is the range of needle lengths used for standard medication injections?
Short to Medium (3/8 inch - 1 1/2 inch)
Q19: What is the range of needle gauges used for standard medication injections? What is the number of the largest gauge? What is the number of the smallest gauge?
16-27
16
27
Q20: What is the volume capacity of the standard hypodermic syringe? What measurement are the small calibration lines equal to?
2-3mL
.1mL
Q21: What is the volume capacity of the syringe known as a TB syringe? What measurement are the small calibration lines equal to?
1mL
0.001mL
Q22: What is the only medication that should be measured in an insulin syringe? What measurement are the small calibration lines equal to?
Insulin
50-30 units
Q23: How can you tell if a syringe is an oral syringe?
Rubber or plastic tip
Q24: Name two changes in medication equipment aimed at reducing needle stick injuries.
1. Protective Sheath that covers the needle automatically after administration
2. Retractable needles upon administratin