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scientific management

Fredrick Taylor's term for the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization

secondary group

a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity

expressive leadership

group leadership that focuses on collective well being

organizational environment

refers to factors outside an organization that affect its operation


a web of weak social ties

instrumental leadership

group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks


the tendency of group leaders to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issues


an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently

reference groups

social groups that serve as points of reference in making evaluations and decisions


a social group towards which one feels competition or opposition

bureaucratic inertia

the tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves

social group

two or more people who identify and interact with one another

formal organization

a large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently


a social group with three members


a social group commanding a member's esteem and loyalty


the rule of many by the few

bureaucratic ritualism

a preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of thwarting an organization's goals


a social group with two members

primary group

a small group whose members share personal and enduring relationships

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