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to break down completely; to suddenly lose force or effectiveness

Aegean Sea

sea that borders eastern Greece and western Asia Minor; Paul spread the message of Jesus along its shores


mountain range north of Italy; crossed by Hannibal and his army of 46,000 men, horses, and elephants in their invasion of Rome


Caesar's ally and assistant; later allied with Egyptian queen Cleopatra VIII; both were defeated by Octavian and committed suicide


the revered one; title taken by Octavian when he became Roman emperor


strait on which Byzantium was located; allowed for strategic defense of the city


Greek city that became the new center of the Eastern Roman Empire and was renamed Constantinople


state founded by Phoenicians on the coast of North Africa around 800 B.C.; fought Rome in three Punic Wars over control of Sicily, trade, and control of the Mediterranean


church leaders


Roman emperor who ruled from 306 to 337; he constructed a new capital city in the east, at Byzantium


a chief executive officer of the Roman Republic; two were elected each year, one to run the government and one to lead the army into battle


Richest man in Rome who shared command with Caesar and Pompey until he was killed in battle in 53 B.C.


Romania; the Roman emperor Trajan extended Roman rule into this state

Danube River

northeastern boundary of the Roman Empire; Visigoths crossed the river to enter Roman territory


an absolute ruler


Roman emperor ruling from 284-305 who divided power among four rulers, but his military power gave him a higher status. He expanded government bureaucracy and reforms while combating economic burdens.


people who lived in Etruria north of Rome; influenced the early development of Rome, turning it from a village into a city


greatest Carthaginian general; crushed by Rome at the Battle of Zama in 202 B.C.


Latin poet of the Augustan Age who wrote against job dissatisfaction and greed in the Satires


Germanic tribes that moved into eastern Europe from Asia


Roman apartment blocks constructed of concrete


capital city of Judaea; site of Jewish temple


Jewish prophet who is believed to be the Son of God by Christians and whose teachings created a new religion, Christianity


Roman province in Palestine

Julius Caesar

Roman dictator in 45 B.C. who had been part of the First Triumvirate, defeated Pompey to assume complete control but was assassinated by senators in 44 B.C.


Indo-Europeans who moved into Italy between 1500 B.C. and 1000 B.C. They spoke Latin, and they were herders and farmers.


Roman historian who traced and celebrated Rome's history in the History of Rome.


corrupt Roman emperor

New Testament

the second part of the Christian Bible, it provides a record of Jesus' life and teachings


Caesar's heir and grandnephew; became Emperor Augustus in 27 B.C.


in the Roman social structure, the dominant male head of the household, which also included his wife, sons and their wives and children, unmarried daughters, and slaves


great landowners, they formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic


Apostle of Jesus, a highly educated Jewish Roman citizen, who founded Christian communities throughout Asia Minor and along the shores of the Aegean Sea. Paul taught that Jesus had some to earth to save humanity.

Pax Romana

the Roman Peace; 200-year period from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180 that was characterized by peace and prosperity


in the Roman Republic, a social class made up of minor landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers


Shared command of Rome in 60 B.C. with Crassus and Caesar until defeated by Caesar's army


an official of the Roman Republic in charge of enforcing civil law


in the Roman Empire, an official in charge of a province


a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote

Rhine River

northernmost border of Roman Empire in Europe under Emperor Hadrian

Roman Senate

Roman Republic organization consisting of 300 selected patricians who advised government officials and who determined law


city located in Italy on the Tiber River; center of the Roman Empire

Romulus Augustulus

last emperor of the Western Roman Empire; deposed by the Germanic head of the army in 476

Rubicon River

formed the southern boundary of Italy; Caesar crossed the river into Italy and began a civil war


island south of the Italian peninsula

Simon Peter

Leader of the apostles following Jesus and his teachings

Sinai Peninsula

peninsula between Egypt and Palestine; Roman emperor Trajan extended Roman rule into this region


Roman gladiator who led the most famous slave revolt in Italy in 73 B.C.

Theodosius the Great

Roman emperor who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire


a government by three people with equal power
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Germanic tribe who sacked Rome from northern Africa in 455


Distinguished poet of the Augustan age and author of the epic poem Aeneid to honor Rome


Western Goths who invaded the Roman Empire in the 4th century A.D.

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