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53 terms

Glencoe World History Chapter 5: Rome and the Rise of Christianity

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collapse
to break down completely; to suddenly lose force or effectiveness
Aegean Sea
sea that borders eastern Greece and western Asia Minor; Paul spread the message of Jesus along its shores
Alps
mountain range north of Italy; crossed by Hannibal and his army of 46,000 men, horses, and elephants in their invasion of Rome
Antony
Caesar's ally and assistant; later allied with Egyptian queen Cleopatra VIII; both were defeated by Octavian and committed suicide
Augustus
the revered one; title taken by Octavian when he became Roman emperor
Bosporus
strait on which Byzantium was located; allowed for strategic defense of the city
Byzantium
Greek city that became the new center of the Eastern Roman Empire and was renamed Constantinople
Carthage
state founded by Phoenicians on the coast of North Africa around 800 B.C.; fought Rome in three Punic Wars over control of Sicily, trade, and control of the Mediterranean
clergy
church leaders
Constantine
Roman emperor who ruled from 306 to 337; he constructed a new capital city in the east, at Byzantium
consul
a chief executive officer of the Roman Republic; two were elected each year, one to run the government and one to lead the army into battle
Crassus
Richest man in Rome who shared command with Caesar and Pompey until he was killed in battle in 53 B.C.
Dacia
Romania; the Roman emperor Trajan extended Roman rule into this state
Danube River
northeastern boundary of the Roman Empire; Visigoths crossed the river to enter Roman territory
dictator
an absolute ruler
Diocletian
Roman emperor ruling from 284-305 who divided power among four rulers, but his military power gave him a higher status. He expanded government bureaucracy and reforms while combating economic burdens.
Etruscans
people who lived in Etruria north of Rome; influenced the early development of Rome, turning it from a village into a city
Hannibal
greatest Carthaginian general; crushed by Rome at the Battle of Zama in 202 B.C.
Horace
Latin poet of the Augustan Age who wrote against job dissatisfaction and greed in the Satires
Huns
Germanic tribes that moved into eastern Europe from Asia
insulae
Roman apartment blocks constructed of concrete
Jerusalem
capital city of Judaea; site of Jewish temple
Jesus
Jewish prophet who is believed to be the Son of God by Christians and whose teachings created a new religion, Christianity
Judaea
Roman province in Palestine
Julius Caesar
Roman dictator in 45 B.C. who had been part of the First Triumvirate, defeated Pompey to assume complete control but was assassinated by senators in 44 B.C.
Latins
Indo-Europeans who moved into Italy between 1500 B.C. and 1000 B.C. They spoke Latin, and they were herders and farmers.
Livy
Roman historian who traced and celebrated Rome's history in the History of Rome.
Nero
corrupt Roman emperor
New Testament
the second part of the Christian Bible, it provides a record of Jesus' life and teachings
Octavian
Caesar's heir and grandnephew; became Emperor Augustus in 27 B.C.
paterfamilias
in the Roman social structure, the dominant male head of the household, which also included his wife, sons and their wives and children, unmarried daughters, and slaves
patrician
great landowners, they formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic
Paul
Apostle of Jesus, a highly educated Jewish Roman citizen, who founded Christian communities throughout Asia Minor and along the shores of the Aegean Sea. Paul taught that Jesus had some to earth to save humanity.
Pax Romana
the Roman Peace; 200-year period from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180 that was characterized by peace and prosperity
plebeian
in the Roman Republic, a social class made up of minor landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers
Pompey
Shared command of Rome in 60 B.C. with Crassus and Caesar until defeated by Caesar's army
praetor
an official of the Roman Republic in charge of enforcing civil law
procurator
in the Roman Empire, an official in charge of a province
republic
a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote
Rhine River
northernmost border of Roman Empire in Europe under Emperor Hadrian
Roman Senate
Roman Republic organization consisting of 300 selected patricians who advised government officials and who determined law
Rome
city located in Italy on the Tiber River; center of the Roman Empire
Romulus Augustulus
last emperor of the Western Roman Empire; deposed by the Germanic head of the army in 476
Rubicon River
formed the southern boundary of Italy; Caesar crossed the river into Italy and began a civil war
Sicily
island south of the Italian peninsula
Simon Peter
Leader of the apostles following Jesus and his teachings
Sinai Peninsula
peninsula between Egypt and Palestine; Roman emperor Trajan extended Roman rule into this region
Spartacus
Roman gladiator who led the most famous slave revolt in Italy in 73 B.C.
Theodosius the Great
Roman emperor who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
triumvirate
a government by three people with equal power
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Vandals
Germanic tribe who sacked Rome from northern Africa in 455
Virgil
Distinguished poet of the Augustan age and author of the epic poem Aeneid to honor Rome
Visigoths
Western Goths who invaded the Roman Empire in the 4th century A.D.