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Regarding neurons, which of the following is true?
They transmit messages in the form of electrical impulses
In a neuron, the ______ conducts information to other neurons, and the ____ receives signals from other neurons.
Which part of a neuron may range in size from a few thousandths of an inch to several feet long?
There are ____ types of neurons in the human nervous system, and these are called ______.
3; afferent, efferent, and associative cells
What is true about afferent neurons?
They transmit information about the outside world to the spinal cord and brain
Which type of neuron conveys messages from your brain and spinal cord to your muscles in order to control your body's movements?
In math class, Aaron is planning his next birthday party and thinking about whom to invite. Which neurons in his brain are involved in the planning and thinking?
During his first three years of life, Jason has developed many motor skills, such as crawling, walking, and running. In terms of brain function, Jason's motor development is the result of which process?
Thirty-nine-year-old Marilyn has a disease that has slowed down the transmission of her nerve impulses. This slowing down is a result of the loss of myelin. What disease does Marilyn have?
The resting potential of a neuron is the result of a
high concentration of sodium ions outside the cell
The process by which stimulation causes a neuron's sodium gate to open and allows positively charged molecules to enter, thereby lessening the negative charge of the neuron is called
The abrupt shift in the charge of a neuron from a negative to a positive charge is known as
an action potential
Which of the following occurs during the refractory period?
The neuron is temporarily incapable of firing
Which of the following statements is true about neurotransmitters?
Neurotransmitters can have inhibitory effects, excitatory effects or both
Prolonged neurotransmitter activity is prevented by all of the following functions except
release of excitatory neurotransmitters
in the treatment of schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs serve as _______ that block receptor sites for _______
Psychologists believe that irregularities in the transmission of which neurotransmitter may help explain schizophrenia?
Which neurotransmitter is most involved in the neural pathways in the brain that regulate pleasure states?
Teresa was just diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. During an online chat, she gleaned a lot of information about the disease, but not all of it was accurate. One correct fact that she learned is that
certain cells in her brain are dying
Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter that helps keep the central nervous system aroused?
Jane was adminstered a drug that acts as an antagonist to dopamine. Jane is likely suffering from
Which of the following neurotransmitters prevents neurons from overly exciting their neighbors?
The inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate moods, produces feelings of satiation after eating and induces sleepiness is
Sixteen-year-old Anton takes Prozac for his depression. Chemically speaking, Prozac works for Anton by increasing the availability of which neurotransmitter in his brain?
The brain naturally produces neurotransmitters that are "chemical cousins" of narcotic drugs. They are called
Sharon is a long-distance runner. After a certain point in her workout she beings to feel a natural high instead of pain. This feeling is a result of chemicals in her brain called
Which nervous system would send information about the wavelengths of the colors of the rainbow to the brain?
Which nervous system connects the spinal cord and brain with the sensory organs and muscles?
The peripheral nervous system consists of
the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is to ______ as the parasympathetic nervous system is to ______
more energy: less energy
On a camping trip, Eleni accidentally steps on a hot coal from the campfire. Upon touching the coal, her foot reflexively withdraws from the coal. What is the sequence of response in Eleni's neurons?
sensory neuron-interneuron - motor neuron
Regarding the autonomic nervous system, which of the following is true?
it regulates the heartbeat, respiration, and digestion
Your heartbeat, digestion and pupil dilation are _____ processes regulated by the ______ nervous system
Which of the following situations involves the type of physical functioning primarily influenced by the parasympathetic nervous system?
Betty is doing meditation and positive visualization
What are the two branches of the autonomic nervous system?
the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems
Your parasympathetic nervous system is involved in which of the following?
stimulating your digestive activity
Which part of the brain is matched up correctly with one of its structures?
The forebrain contains the hypothalamus
Trina has recently been having trouble staying awake throughout the day. Which area of Trina's brain is related to her difficulty?
The fact that alcohol often causes problems with balance and coordination suggests that it may have an effect on the
Brianna, a new mother, is able to sleep through the noise of her husband watching a boxing match on TV. However, as soon as the baby wakes up and gives a little cry, Brianna wakes up. The part of the brain that filters out the TV noise but allows her to hear the baby's cry, even in her sleep, is the
As a result of brain damage, an animal is permanently asleep. This suggests damage to what part of the animals brain?
Which structure of the forebrain plays a key role in regulating voluntary movement such as walking?
When brain structure regulates such bodily functions as thirst and hunger, fluid concentrations, and body temperature?
Regarding the limbic system, which of the following statements is true?
The limbic system plays a role in emotional processing and memory
If you were to look at the structures in the forebrain, you would find that the hippocampus is shaped like a
Regarding the midbrain, which of the following statements is true?
The midbrain helps to keep the eyes focused when the head moves
After a motorcycle accident in which she wasn't wearing a helmet, Vanessa has difficulty responding emotionally to unpleasant stimuli. Vanessa most likely experienced damage to which brain structure?
The brain structure that is located just behind the amygdala and plays an important role in the formation of memories is the
Damage to which portion of the cerebral cortex would most likely interfere with a person's hearing?
After a car accident, Brandon lost some of his visual abilities. Which portion of Brandon's cerebral cortex was probably damaged in the accident?
Following brain damage, Takami cannot feel stimulation of her arms. She probably suffered damage to which portion of the brain?
Stimulation of which part of the cerebral cortex would result in the experience of sensation from a body part?
Which of the following statements is true about the frontal cortex?
The frontal lobes are the ones best described as containing "you"
Which part of the forebrain can be likened to the central processing unit of a computer?
the frontal lobe
Which part of the brain is responsible for piecing together sensory input to form meaningful perceptions of the world?
The association areas
Sonal is at a brain research center, participating in a study. She is hooked up to a machine that measures electrical activity in her brain through the use of electrodes attached to her scalp. Which technique is the researcher using with Sonal?
A technique that uses measurement of radioactive isotopes to evaluate the activity of the brain is
positron emission tomography
To see whether Jay's head aches were caused by a tumor, Dr.Ariton passed an X-ray beam through Jay's head from different angles to produce a three-dimensional image. Dr. Ariton was using which imaging technique?
Scientists were able to discover how individual neurons in the visual cortex respond to particular types of visual stimuli using which experimental method?
In which type of experimental brain study technique does the investigator pass a mild electric current through certain parts of the brain in order to determine which parts are involved in controlling particular behaviors?
Typically, the right hemisphere would play a dominant role in which of the following functions?
The division of functions between the right and left hemispheres of the brain is termed
Regarding language dominance and handedness, which of the following statements is true?
About 15 percent of left-handed people show a pattern of mixed dominance.
For most people, Broca's area is located in the ______ lobe, and Wernicke's area is located in the ________ lobe.
left frontal; left temporal
As a result of the car accident, two friends sustained a brain injury. Patrick had significant damage in his Broca's area, whereas Angelo had significant damage in his Wernicke's area. Consequently, Patrick was unable to ________, and Angelo was unable to ________.
speak; understand speech
Among five sets of identical twins, how many pairs are expected to share the same hand preference?
Which of the following statements is true about handedness?
About 95% of fetuses suck their right thumbs and about 95% of people are right-handed
Jackson had an operation in which his corpus callosum was severed. It is most likely that Jackson had which disease?
The patient will be able to say "pencil" when the pencil is presented to the right visual field, but not
when it is presented to the left visual field.
Phineas Gage showed sever personality changes following an accident that damaged his
In the case of Phineas Gage discussed in the text, what type of brain injury did Gage experience?
The brain's ability to adapt and reorganize itself following trauma or surgical alteration is termed
John was playing football and received a blow to the head when he was tackled. John's injury is called a
Diabetes results from irregularities in the functioning of the hormone that regulates the concentrations of glucose in the blood. That hormone is
Disturbances in the sleep-wake cycles may be due to the hormone _____, which is secreted by the _____ gland
Which hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete other hormones that promote muscle development?
Winnie has a disease in which her pancreas produces too little insulin. What is Winnie's disease?
The hormone ____ is to the pituitary gland as the hormone ____ is to the pancreas.
Milly just found out that she is pregnant. In order to maintain the pregnancy, her ovaries will need to produce which hormone?
The male sex hormones are produced by the _____, and female sex hormones are produced by the _____.
Charlize is excessively anxious and irritable. Charlize probably has an excess of which type of hormone?
Which of the following statements is true about premenstrual syndrome?
Researchers are unsure about the causes of PMS
Regarding the human genome, which of the following statements is true?
With the exception of identical twins, no two people share the same genetic code.
Two psychologists debate the nature-nurture problem. What is the topic of their debate?
The influence of genetics versus environment in human behavior
Dr. Werner theorized that people inherit their sense of humor. Therefore, she did a twin study and found that 70 percent of identical twins received similar scores for humor, whereas only 30 percent of fraternal twins did. Those numbers represent
Twenty-three-year-old Thomas has schizophrenia. Kinship studies suggest that which of Thomas's relatives is most likely also to have schizophrenia?
his monozygotic twin
A polygenic trait is one that
is influenced by many genes interacting with the environment in complex ways
Which of the following have researchers already accomplished through the use of brain scans?
Differentiated between extroverts and neurotics by monitoring their reactions to positive and negative
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