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165 terms

Psych Ch 2

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Regarding neurons, which of the following is true?
They transmit messages in the form of electrical impulses
The fundamental building block of the nervous system is the
neuron
The parts of a neuron are the soma, the axon, the dendrites, and the
terminal buttons
The component of a neuron that performs the metabolic functions of the cell is the
soma
Regarding a neuron's soma, all of the following are true EXCEPT:
The soma contains terminal buttons
Another name for soma is
cell body
In a neuron, the ______ conducts information to other neurons, and the ____ receives signals from other neurons.
axon; dendrite
Which of the following best describes a synapse?
A tiny gap that separates one neuron from another
What is the job of a dendrite?
To receive signals from other neurons
Which part of a neuron may range in size from a few thousandths of an inch to several feet long?
axon
Which of the following is the function of the soma?
controlling metabolic processes
In a neuron, ______ is to sending as _____ is to receiving.
axon, dendrite
The knoblike swellings at the ends of axons are called
terminal buttons
Neurotransmitters are stored in which part of the neuron?
The terminal buttons
The small fluid-filled gap through which neural impulses are carried is called the
synapse
What is the job of a synapse?
To provide a place where neurons can communicate with one another
There are ____ types of neurons in the human nervous system, and these are called ______.
3; afferent, efferent, and associative cells
What is the most common type of neuron in the nervous system?
interneuron
In neurons, efferent is to ____ as afferent is to ______.
motor; sensory
What is true about afferent neurons?
They transmit information about the outside world to the spinal cord and brain
Which type of neuron conveys messages from your brain and spinal cord to your muscles in order to control your body's movements?
motor
In math class, Aaron is planning his next birthday party and thinking about whom to invite. Which neurons in his brain are involved in the planning and thinking?
Interneurons
Associative neuron is another name for
interneuron
Besides the neuron, the other main type of cell in the nervous system is the
glial cell
During his first three years of life, Jason has developed many motor skills, such as crawling, walking, and running. In terms of brain function, Jason's motor development is the result of which process?
myelination
The term white matter refers to
myelinated axons
Glands receive messages from which type of neurons?
motor
The fatty layer of cells that is wrapped around many axons is called the
myelin sheath
The word glial is derived from the greek word for
glue
Glial cells do all of the following EXCEPT
produce neurotransmitters
Gaps in myelin that create noninsulated areas along an axon are called
nodes of Ranvier
Thirty-nine-year-old Marilyn has a disease that has slowed down the transmission of her nerve impulses. This slowing down is a result of the loss of myelin. What disease does Marilyn have?
Multiple Sclerosis
Approximately how much does the human brain weigh?
3 pounds
Ions are
either positively or negatively charged
The resting potential of a neuron is the result of a
high concentration of sodium ions outside the cell
What is the approximate resting potential of a neuron?
-70 mV
When a neuron is at rest,
it is not being sufficiently stimulated
The process by which stimulation causes a neuron's sodium gate to open and allows positively charged molecules to enter, thereby lessening the negative charge of the neuron is called
depolarization
Depolarization occurs when the neuron becomes
less negative due to influx of sodium ions
Another term for an action potential is
neural impulse
The abrupt shift in the charge of a neuron from a negative to a positive charge is known as
an action potential
Which of the following is true of action potentials?
The thicker the axon, the faster they travel
Which of the following occurs during the refractory period?
The neuron is temporarily incapable of firing
Which of the following statements is true about neurotransmitters?
Neurotransmitters can have inhibitory effects, excitatory effects or both
Prolonged neurotransmitter activity is prevented by all of the following functions except
release of excitatory neurotransmitters
Which term best describes the nature of reuptake
recycle
in the treatment of schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs serve as _______ that block receptor sites for _______
antagonists: dopamine
Which disorder is often characterized by hallucinations and delusions?
schizophrenia
Regarding neurotransmitters, ______ is to blocking as _____ is to enhancing.
antagonist: agonist
Psychologists believe that irregularities in the transmission of which neurotransmitter may help explain schizophrenia?
dopamine
Which neurotransmitter is most involved in the neural pathways in the brain that regulate pleasure states?
dopamine
Which of the following happens at the synapse?
Neurotransmitters go across it
Teresa was just diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. During an online chat, she gleaned a lot of information about the disease, but not all of it was accurate. One correct fact that she learned is that
certain cells in her brain are dying
Loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain can result in
Parkinson's disease
Agonists may do which of the following?
Prevent the reuptake of neurotransmitters
Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter that helps keep the central nervous system aroused?
Glutamate
Jane was adminstered a drug that acts as an antagonist to dopamine. Jane is likely suffering from
schizophrenia
Cocaine and amphetamines increase the availability of
dopamine
Which of the following acts as an antagonist?
Curare
Which of the following neurotransmitters prevents neurons from overly exciting their neighbors?
GABA
Alcohol increases the sensitivity of receptor sites for
GABA
Anxiety disorders may be due to reduced levels of
GABA
The inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate moods, produces feelings of satiation after eating and induces sleepiness is
serotonin
Sixteen-year-old Anton takes Prozac for his depression. Chemically speaking, Prozac works for Anton by increasing the availability of which neurotransmitter in his brain?
serotonin
The brain naturally produces neurotransmitters that are "chemical cousins" of narcotic drugs. They are called
endorphins
Sharon is a long-distance runner. After a certain point in her workout she beings to feel a natural high instead of pain. This feeling is a result of chemicals in her brain called
endorphins
Which nervous system would send information about the wavelengths of the colors of the rainbow to the brain?
somatic
The brain and spinal cord make up the
central nervous system
Which nervous system connects the spinal cord and brain with the sensory organs and muscles?
The somatic
The peripheral nervous system consists of
the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system
Which of the following statements about spinal reflexes is true?
They bypass the brain
The sympathetic nervous system is to ______ as the parasympathetic nervous system is to ______
more energy: less energy
On a camping trip, Eleni accidentally steps on a hot coal from the campfire. Upon touching the coal, her foot reflexively withdraws from the coal. What is the sequence of response in Eleni's neurons?
sensory neuron-interneuron - motor neuron
Regarding the autonomic nervous system, which of the following is true?
it regulates the heartbeat, respiration, and digestion
Your heartbeat, digestion and pupil dilation are _____ processes regulated by the ______ nervous system
involuntary; autonomic
Which of the following situations involves the type of physical functioning primarily influenced by the parasympathetic nervous system?
Betty is doing meditation and positive visualization
What are the two branches of the autonomic nervous system?
the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems
The sympathetic nervous system does all of the following except
promote digestion
Your parasympathetic nervous system is involved in which of the following?
stimulating your digestive activity
Which part of the brain is matched up correctly with one of its structures?
The forebrain contains the hypothalamus
Which of the following is part of the midbrain?
The reticular formation
Which of the following functions is controlled by the medulla?
sneezing
Trina has recently been having trouble staying awake throughout the day. Which area of Trina's brain is related to her difficulty?
Pons
Which part of the brain controls balance and coordination?
Cerebellum
The fact that alcohol often causes problems with balance and coordination suggests that it may have an effect on the
cerebellum
Brianna, a new mother, is able to sleep through the noise of her husband watching a boxing match on TV. However, as soon as the baby wakes up and gives a little cry, Brianna wakes up. The part of the brain that filters out the TV noise but allows her to hear the baby's cry, even in her sleep, is the
reticular formation
As a result of brain damage, an animal is permanently asleep. This suggests damage to what part of the animals brain?
reticular formation
The forebrain contains all of the following structures EXCEPT the
cerebellum
Which structure of the forebrain plays a key role in regulating voluntary movement such as walking?
basal ganglia
Which brain structure is best described as a "relay station"?
thalamus
All of the following senses are routed through the thalamus EXCEPT
smell
When brain structure regulates such bodily functions as thirst and hunger, fluid concentrations, and body temperature?
hypothalamus
Damage to which brain structure might result in excessive eating?
hypothalamus
Regarding the limbic system, which of the following statements is true?
The limbic system plays a role in emotional processing and memory
The pons is
located in the hindbrain
If you were to look at the structures in the forebrain, you would find that the hippocampus is shaped like a
seahorse
Regarding the midbrain, which of the following statements is true?
The midbrain helps to keep the eyes focused when the head moves
After a motorcycle accident in which she wasn't wearing a helmet, Vanessa has difficulty responding emotionally to unpleasant stimuli. Vanessa most likely experienced damage to which brain structure?
Amygdala
The brain structure that is located just behind the amygdala and plays an important role in the formation of memories is the
hippocampus
The cerebral cortex accounts for approximately what percentage of the brains total mass?
80%
The thin, outer layer of the cerebrum is called the
cerebral cortex
Which brain structure connects the two cerebral hemispheres?
The corpus callosum
In the cerebral cortex, ______ is to vision as _______ is to hearing.
occipital; temporal
Which lobe processes information related to touch and body movement?
Parietal
Damage to which portion of the cerebral cortex would most likely interfere with a person's hearing?
temporal
After a car accident, Brandon lost some of his visual abilities. Which portion of Brandon's cerebral cortex was probably damaged in the accident?
occipital
Which lobe processes somatosensory information?
Parietal
Following brain damage, Takami cannot feel stimulation of her arms. She probably suffered damage to which portion of the brain?
Parietal lobe
Stimulation of which part of the cerebral cortex would result in the experience of sensation from a body part?
Parietal lobe
Which lobe is best described as the "executive center" of the brain?
Frontal
Which of the following statements is true about the frontal cortex?
The frontal lobes are the ones best described as containing "you"
Which part of the forebrain can be likened to the central processing unit of a computer?
the frontal lobe
The majority of the cortex is made up of the
association areas
Which part of the brain is responsible for piecing together sensory input to form meaningful perceptions of the world?
The association areas
Sonal is at a brain research center, participating in a study. She is hooked up to a machine that measures electrical activity in her brain through the use of electrodes attached to her scalp. Which technique is the researcher using with Sonal?
electroencephalography
Which technique takes snapshots of the brain in action
Functional magnetic resonance imagery
A technique that uses measurement of radioactive isotopes to evaluate the activity of the brain is
positron emission tomography
To see whether Jay's head aches were caused by a tumor, Dr.Ariton passed an X-ray beam through Jay's head from different angles to produce a three-dimensional image. Dr. Ariton was using which imaging technique?
Computerized tomography
What technique has helped scientists understand why people cannot tickle temselves?
Functional MRI
Scientists were able to discover how individual neurons in the visual cortex respond to particular types of visual stimuli using which experimental method?
Electrical recording
A lesion is
damage in the tissue of the brain
In which type of experimental brain study technique does the investigator pass a mild electric current through certain parts of the brain in order to determine which parts are involved in controlling particular behaviors?
Electrical stimulation
Destroying a section of brain tissue to determine its effects on function is called
lesioning
Typically, the right hemisphere would play a dominant role in which of the following functions?
face recognition
The division of functions between the right and left hemispheres of the brain is termed
lateralization
Regarding language dominance and handedness, which of the following statements is true?
About 15 percent of left-handed people show a pattern of mixed dominance.
For most people, Broca's area is located in the ______ lobe, and Wernicke's area is located in the ________ lobe.
left frontal; left temporal
Damage to Broca's area or Wernicke's area can lead to
aphasia
As a result of the car accident, two friends sustained a brain injury. Patrick had significant damage in his Broca's area, whereas Angelo had significant damage in his Wernicke's area. Consequently, Patrick was unable to ________, and Angelo was unable to ________.
speak; understand speech
Recent research suggest that hand preference begins to develop
before birth
Among five sets of identical twins, how many pairs are expected to share the same hand preference?
four pairs
Which of the following statements is true about handedness?
About 95% of fetuses suck their right thumbs and about 95% of people are right-handed
Split-brain patients are the result of an operation that severs the
corpus callosum
Jackson had an operation in which his corpus callosum was severed. It is most likely that Jackson had which disease?
epilepsy
Inasplit-brainresearchstudy,whatwillhappenwhenapencilispresentedinthepatient'svisualfield?
The patient will be able to say "pencil" when the pencil is presented to the right visual field, but not
when it is presented to the left visual field.
Phineas Gage showed sever personality changes following an accident that damaged his
prefromtal cortex
In the case of Phineas Gage discussed in the text, what type of brain injury did Gage experience?
a laceration
The brain's ability to adapt and reorganize itself following trauma or surgical alteration is termed
plasticity
John was playing football and received a blow to the head when he was tackled. John's injury is called a
concussion
The endocrine system includes which parts of the body
glands
Diabetes results from irregularities in the functioning of the hormone that regulates the concentrations of glucose in the blood. That hormone is
insulin
Disturbances in the sleep-wake cycles may be due to the hormone _____, which is secreted by the _____ gland
melatonin; pineal
Which of the following terms best captures the meaning of homeostasis?
balance
Releasing factors are secreted b the
hypothalamus
Which hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete other hormones that promote muscle development?
ACTH
Winnie has a disease in which her pancreas produces too little insulin. What is Winnie's disease?
Diabetes
The hormone ____ is to the pituitary gland as the hormone ____ is to the pancreas.
oxytocin; insulin
Which gland is best described as the "master gland"?
the pituitary
Milly just found out that she is pregnant. In order to maintain the pregnancy, her ovaries will need to produce which hormone?
progesterone
The male sex hormones are produced by the _____, and female sex hormones are produced by the _____.
testes; ovaries
Gonads are ____ glands.
sex
Of the following hormones, which is most likely to be related to aggressive behavior?
testosterone
Charlize is excessively anxious and irritable. Charlize probably has an excess of which type of hormone?
thyroid
Which of the following statements is true about premenstrual syndrome?
Researchers are unsure about the causes of PMS
Which is the best def. of genotype?
an organism's genetic code
Humans have how many chromosomes?
46
Regarding the human genome, which of the following statements is true?
With the exception of identical twins, no two people share the same genetic code.
Two psychologists debate the nature-nurture problem. What is the topic of their debate?
The influence of genetics versus environment in human behavior
An organism's observable traits are called its
phenotype
Which type of study provides the clearest way to address the nature-nurture question?
Adoptee
Dr. Werner theorized that people inherit their sense of humor. Therefore, she did a twin study and found that 70 percent of identical twins received similar scores for humor, whereas only 30 percent of fraternal twins did. Those numbers represent
concordance rates
Twenty-three-year-old Thomas has schizophrenia. Kinship studies suggest that which of Thomas's relatives is most likely also to have schizophrenia?
his monozygotic twin
A polygenic trait is one that
is influenced by many genes interacting with the environment in complex ways
Which of the following have researchers already accomplished through the use of brain scans?
Differentiated between extroverts and neurotics by monitoring their reactions to positive and negative
images
Scientists discovered that a region in the brain called the nucleus accumbens became active just before people decided to purchase an item they liked. That region happens to involve a high density of receptors for which neurotransmitter(s)?
dopamine