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NES Subtest I, Social Studies: Government and Economics
Terms in this set (61)
Basic functions of government
Establishing laws, public safety, maintaining order, providing public services, defense, economic activity, and education.
Makes the laws.
Provides justice and settles disputes.
Enforces the laws.
Carries out the day-to-day functions of the government.
United States Constitution
1787, Continental Congress made a constitution after Articles of Confederation failed; It included a central government divided into three branches (president, Senate, House of Representatives, and Supreme Court) and controlled by checks and balances. The Bill of Rights were ten amendments to the new constitution that guaranteed rights of freedom to citizens; made a national gov't that controlled taxes, army, trade, and currency.
It means that power is divided between the national and state governments.
Powers allocated to the national government (e.g. the military, warfare, interstate commerce, coining money).
Powers that belong to the states (e.g. professional licensing, intrastate commerce, establishing schools). Within each state, there are also local governments that make day-to-day decisions affecting their communities.
Separation of powers
At the national level, power is divided between three branches of government. This ___________________ ensures that no one person or group has all the power. The branches are the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Each branch has its own responsibilities, which include checks and balances on the other branches.
- Who: President, Vice-President
- How chosen: Elected for 4-year terms
- Main duty: Enforce the laws
- Checks on other branches: Appoints Supreme Court nominees, and can veto laws
- Who: Congress (House of representatives and Senate)
- How chosen: House~elected for 2-year terms; Senate~ elected for 6-year terms
- Main duty: Make the laws
- Checks on other branches: Must approve Supreme Court nominees, can override presidential veto, and can impeach president of Supreme Court jutices
- Who: Supreme Court
- How chosen: Appointed by the President and approved by Congress; serve for life
- Main duty: Interpret the laws
- Checks on other branches: Can declare laws or presidential actions unconstitutional
Changes made to the constitution. Currently, there are 27 amendments.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments. They outline citizens' basic rights and freedoms.
Freedoms of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition.
Right to bear arms.
Protection against quartering of soldiers.
Protection against illegal search and seizure.
Rights to due process; protection against self-incrimination and double jeopardy.
Rights to a speedy trial by jury, to hear accusations and confront the accuser, to witnesses, and to counsel.
Right to trial by jury in civil cases.
Protection against cruel and unusual punishment.
Protects rights not enumerated in the Constitution.
Limits the powers of the federal government to those designated in the Constitution.
Forms of Government: Authoritarian
Government maintains strict control over the people.
Forms of Government: Autocracy
Rule by a single, authoritarian leader.
Forms of Government: Democracy
Rule by the people (via majority votes).
Forms of Government: Direct democracy
The people vote directly on laws.
Forms of Government: Dictatorship
A single ruler has absolute authority and is unencumbered by a constitution.
Forms of Government: Monarchy
Government by a single, hereditary ruler.
Forms of Government: Oligarchy
Rule by a small group of people.
Forms of Government: Replublic
Citizens elect representatives to make laws for them.
Forms of Government: Theocracy
Rule by a religious group
Forms of Government: Totalitarianism
A government that has complete control over all aspects of citizens' lives and employs censorship, coercion, and oppressive means to ensure compliance.
International Relations: Foreign policy
Economic relationships, conflict, conflict resolution, measures to maintain the balance of power, territorial agreements, international cooperation and agreements and their enforcement, distribution of resources, communication, and alliances (economic or military).
It is a social science concerned with how goods and services are produced, bought, and sold.
It is the study of how economics works on a larger scale, such as in a whole nation.
It is the study of economics on a smaller scale, looking at the decisions and impacts of individuals, small groups, and specific markets.
Resources are limited.
It is a system in which property and the means of production are privately owned. What is produced, how much, and at what price is dictated by the market forces of supply and demand. Profit motive encourages hard work and innovation. It is also called market economy. The purest form of __________ is laissez-faire, in which the government takes a completely hands-off approach to the economic sector and allows market forces to regulate themselves.
The purest form of capitalism, in which the government takes a completely hands-off approach to the economic sector and allows market forces to regulate themselves.
It is a system in which property is controlled collectively rather than individually. The purest form of socialism is communism, in which everything is owned in common and there is no private property and no social classes. In theory, communism eventually replaces the need for a government. In reality, however, nations that practice forms of communism tend to have very strong governments that take complete economic control.
An economy in which the government has total control of the economy through centralized planning.
It is a blend of capitalist and socialist principles, with both publicly and privately owned business operating at the same time.
It is one that is self-sufficient and cut off from outside influences.
It allows for trade with other nations.
It is one in which people only produce that which is needed to survive.
Balance of trade
A measure of a nation's exports vs. imports.
Planning how current money will be allocated.
The use of resources.
An overall decrease in the price of goods and services.
Goods sold to another country.
Goods bought from another country.
An overall increase in the price of goods and services.
The difference between revenue and cost.
A period of slow economic growth.
When demand exceeds supply.
When supply exceeds demand.
When there is a lack of competition and only one seller controls all or almost all of the market share on a product or service.
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