The process of culture change that occurs when the culture traits of a dominant culture are accepted by the less-dominant culture.
occurs when a minority population loses its identifying cultural characteristics as it blends into the dominant culture.
the strategies that human groups employ to live successfully as part of their natural environment (air conditioning, irrigation, style of dress)
core and periphery
the culture hearth and the area to which the diffusion occurs is representative of this pattern.
the study of the relationship between a culture group and its natural environment (for example: The Balkan landscape and subsequent cultural and political fragmentation.)
items that are not really appropriate to a given location are brought to an area through diffusion.
the development of a new form of culture trait when two separate and distinct traits are fused (religion or language, for example).
a relatively equal exchange of culture and ways of life between two strong cultures.
something that was not previously considered "for sale" becomes an object to be exchanged for money.
culture exhibited by small, static, homogeneous, isolated, and largely self-sufficient social group.
traditional songs that reflect the culture. A style of music particular to a group (Tibetan throat singing, corridos in Mexico)
oral traditions of a folk culture—including tales, fables, legends, and moral teachings. (La Llorona in Mexico and New Mexico. The woman wails for her lost children after drowning them when her husband leaves her.)
cultural elements representative of large, heterogeneous groups. Items are mass produced for mass consumption.
folk housing forms found in areas inhabited by indigenous people. (wattle and daub in Africa, communal house in South Pacific)
A language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue. (Swahili in East Africa, for example.)
a mapped boundary line marking the limits of a particular linguistic feature (flock or herd, coke or soda, etc.)
a collection of individual languages that are part of a language branch. They share common origins and have a similar grammar and vocabulary.
A "common language" used among speakers of different languages for the purpose of trade and commerce.
in multilingual countries the language selected often by the educated and politically powerful elite to promote internal cohesion.
the variant of language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in public life.
the study of place names (Can reflect religious background, historical relationships, physical characteristics.)
A traditional religion in which animals, and objects in the natural environment are believed to possess souls that can help as well as hinder human efforts on earth.
A universalizing religion that originated in South Asia with the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama.
a type of religious practice that may appear in tribal societies in the wake of interaction with technologically advanced, non-native cultures. The cults are focused on obtaining the material wealth of the advanced culture through magical thinking, religious rituals and practices, believing that the wealth was intended for them by their deities and ancestors
Although not organized as a religion, it has had a great influence on thought and behavior in East Asia. The focus is on hierarchy and order to create a harmonious society.
a "spreading out" of a population (Jews after the destruction of the Second Temple, Chinese throughout Southeast Asia)
a small area or territory located within a state but which does not come under its jurisdiction.
The Tao art of arranging surroundings in order to balance the natural elements in the environment.
an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live a life of harmlessness and renunciation. Similarities to Buddhism--influential traders.
form of tribal religion based on belief in a hidden world of gods, ancestral spirits, and demons responsive only to an interceding priest.
--minority Islamic sect--strong in Iran and southern Iraq; believe that blood relatives of Mohammad should lead the faith.
Chinese value system and ethnic religion emphasizing harmony with the natural way of the universe
--an ethnic or tribal religion--not necessarily shamanistic or animistic--found in remote, mountainous, isolated regions.
transition zones between major culture realms--Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Balkan Peninsula
the use of genocide or forced relocation to remove members of a certain culture group from an area (Bosnia/Kosovo/Darfur)
people sharing a distinctive culture, frequently based on a common national origin, religion, language, or race.
a small rural area settled by a single distinctive ethnic group that has placed its imprint on the landscape.
measures the degree to which members of a minority group are not uniformly distributed among the total population.
in a cultural sense, a reference to socially created, not biologically based distinctions between females and males