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Ch. 3 Developmental Psych
Terms in this set (35)
Stages of prenatal development
Zygote, embryo, fetus outlined in table 3.1 page 63
Period of the Zygote
Last about two weeks, from fertilization until the time the mass of cells address down and out of the fallopian tube and attaches itself to the wall of the uterus.
Occurs between the seventh and the ninth day of the zygotic period. Implantation is when the blastocyst (Fluid - filled ball that is a result of the Zagat's first to sell duplication) birthdate into the uterine lining.
A membrane formed by the trophoblast that encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid, which keeps the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides cushion against any jolts caused by the woman's movement.
Created by The end of the second week, cells of the trophoblast form this protective membrane, which surrounds the amnion. From the chorion, tiny here like the lie, or blood vessels, and merge. This allows for the placenta to start to develop. By bringing the embryos in mother's blood close together by preventing them from mixing directly, the placenta permit food and oxygen to reach the organism and waste products to be carried away.
Canex the placenta to the developing organism. It contains one large vein that delivers bloodletting with nutrients into arteries that removes waste products.
period of the ebryo
Last from implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy. During this brief six weeks, the groundwork is laid for all body structures and organs.
Three layers formed from the embryonic desk (occurs in the first week of the embryonic period)
The ectoderm, which will become the nervous system in the skin; the message learn, from which will develop the muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs; and the endoderm, which will become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands. The three layers give rise to all parts of thr body
The ectoderm fold over to form this, which will become the spinal cord and brain. The nervous system develops the fastest.
Period of the fetus
Occurs from the ninth week to the end of pregnancy and it is the longest prenatal. Open quotes growth and finishing" phase, the organism increases rapidly in size. Begins at the third month.
Prenatal development is sometimes divided into trimesters, or three equal time periods. At the end of the third month, the first trimester is complete
Formed by the middle of the second trimester, between 17 and 20 weeks. It's a white cheese like substance that protects the embryo skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in amniotic fluid. White, Downey hair (Called lanugo) also appears over the entire body, helping the vernix to stick to the skin.
Age of viability
The point at which the fetus converse survive, it occur sometime between 22 and 26 weeks (within the third trimester).
Refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period. The harm done is not always simple and straightforward, but depends on the following factors: dose, heredity, other negative influences, and age.
Sensitive periods in prenatal development
Figure 3.2 page 67
In the zygotic., Before implantation, teratogens rarely have any impact. If they do, the tiny mass of cells is easily so damaged that it does. Embryonic. Is the time when serious effects are most likely to occur because the foundations for all body parts are being laid down. During the fetal period carrot top teratogenic damages usually minor however organs such as brain, ears, eyes, teeth, and genitals can still be strongly affected.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)
, A term encompassing a range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure her. Children with this are given one of three diagnoses, Which is very and severity: fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder.
Fetal alcohol syndrome and (FAS)
Distinguished by a slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities (sure eyelid openings, then upper lip, and a smoothie or flattened philtrum, or indention running from the bottom of the nose to the center of the upper lip), and brain injury, evident in a small head and impairment in at least three areas of functioning- For example, memory, language, and communication, I think his van and activity level, planning and reasoning, motor coordination, or social skills
Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (P - FAS)
Characterized by two of the three facial abnormalities mentioned above and brain injury, again evident in at least three areas of impaired functioning. Mothers of children with this disorder generally drink alcohol in smaller quantities, and children's defects very with the timing and link of alcohol exposure.
Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)
At least three areas of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities. Again, prenatal alcohol exposure, though confirmed, is less pervasive then in FAS
Internal factors that affect prenatal development:
nutrition, emotional stress, blood type, age, and previous birth
Used to assess the newborns physical condition quickly, doctors and nurses use the scale.
Located on page 76, table 3.2.
Rating of zero, one, or two, on each of five characteristics is made at one minute and again at five minutes after birth. A combined score of seven or better in the cleats at the infant is in good physical condition. The score is between four and six, the baby needs assistance in establishing breathing and other vital signs. If the score is three or below the infant is in serious danger and requires emergency medical attention. Two ratings are given because some babies have trouble adjusting it first but do quite well after a few minutes.
Approaches to childbirth
Natural, or prepared, childbirth or home delivery
Natural, or prepared, childbirth
A group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth as rewarding and experience as possible. Usually entails participation in three activities: classes, relaxation and breathing techniques, and labor coaching.
Midwives and such
In adequate oxygen supply, during labor and delivery. Can be responsible for brain damage in cerebral palsy.
So that the buttocks or feet would be delivered first, this can cause the umbilical cord to be wrapped around the neck of the child.
Electronic instruments that track the babies heart rate during labor
Labor and delivery mediation
Some form of medication is used in more than 80% of US births.
Analgesics- drugs used to relieve pain, may be given in mild doses during labor to help the mother relax.
Anesthetics- a stronger type of pain killer that blocks sensation
Epidural analgesia- most common form of controlling labor pains, drug delivered via catheter for continuos effects. It is a regional pain reliving drug that numbs the pelvic region.
Surgical birth- the doctor makes an incision in the mothers abdomen and lifts the baby out of the uterus.
40 years ago, this method was rare , now not so much.
Warranted during breech births.
Incline is not in popularity is not necessarily due to need, but medical control over child birth. Many numbers are unnecessary. Rocovery takes longer.
Avg. weight of newborn
Weight of a newborn significance
Best indicator of survival and healthy development
1 of 13 Americans infants is born underweight
Most low birth weight infants go on to live healthy, normal lives.
Infants born several weeks or more before their due date. Although they are small, there weight may still be appropriate, based on the amount of time they spent n the uterus.
Small for date
Babies are below their expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy. Some of these babies are actually full term. Others are preterm infants who are way underweight.
Preterm vs. small for date
Small for date babies usually have more serious problems. They probably experienced malnutrition before birth (could be that mothers did not eat properly, the placenta did not function normally, or babies themselves had defects that prevented them from growing as they should.
Outcomes page 78
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