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Ap Euro Chapter 19
Terms in this set (52)
parlements of Paris
had the power to decide whether the king could tax certain people or not, but in the end could be overruled by the King.
were abolished when the wouldn't let King Louis XV tax the nobility. So a new and docile parliament of royal officials was created
When Louis XIV died in 1715, the crown was to be succeeded by his five-year-old grandson Louis XV. Under Louis XV, the French minister Maupeou began the restoration of royal absolutism by abolishing the parlement of Paris. (p.621-622). Did not have the effectiveness of ruling that his grandfather had.
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. he and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate's list of grievances.
One in a series of responsble persons who saw the need for financial reform in France. He was the successor to Necker as finance minister to Louis XVI. He proposed, 1786, a general tax to replace the taille, a lightening of indirect taxes, the abolition of internal tariff barriers, confiscation of church properties, and establishment of provincial assemblies in which propertied elements should be represented without regard to estate. An Assembly of Notables was called for support in these plans in 1787 but resulted in deadlock and he was dismissed.
Assembly of Notables
Louis XVI calls all the Nobles together to ask for money and the wealthy refuse to. He asks them to pay taxes and the Nobles say NO. Asks them to pay a very small percentage in tax holding. He calls this assembly for the first time in a hundreds years.
Revolution of 1789
June - Third Estate declared themselves the National Assembly.
July - Storming of Bastille
August - Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.
October - Women's march on Versailles
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of this in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
The Three Estates
First Estate= those who pray (clergy); Second Estate= those who fight (nobles); Third Estate= those who work (everyone else).
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Cahiers de Doleances
statements of local grievances drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General, advocating a regular constitutional government abolishing fiscal privileges of the church and nobility
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Storming of the Bastille
July 14th, 1789. There had been a rumor that the king had been planning a military coup against the national Assembly. The people decided to defend their city and marched to the Bastille prison for gunpowder. The governor of the prison refused them, so they fought until the prison surrendered. This saved the National Assembly. Is now called the "Bastille Day" and is France's Independence Day.
Queen Marie Antoinette
She was an Austrian princess and became the wife of King Louis XVI. She married and the age of 16 and became queen at age 19. She also bought hundreds of dresses, accessories, and jewelry weekly with her allowance that was double what the previous queen of France received.She lived ll miles outside the city in Versailles. She liked to play peasant at her "little" playhouse(mansion) called Le Petite Trianon. She was not well liked and was often called "That Austrian Woman" instead of Queen. She was so arrogant that when a messenger came to her telling her that the people have nothing to eat and have no bread, that she said "Let them eat cake." She bore her husband, Louis the 16th a son, Louis the 17th. She was guillotined October 16, 1793.
the Great Fear
a vast panic that spread quickly through France in 1789; peasant rebellions bacame part of the Great Fear; citizens, fearing invasion by foreign troops that would support the French monarchy, formed militias
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Parisian Women's March on Versailles
On October 5, 1789 an angry mob of Parisian women stormed through Versailles demanding Louis XVI end the nationwide food shortage and that the royal family return to Paris with them.
Olympe de Gourges
a woman who believed that females should be entitiled to the Declaration of the Rights of men. Wrote the declaration for the rights of women. It was rejected
make rules for government, 83 of them, each has its own militia. took the place of provinces
was established by the assembly to provide the nation with uniform weights and measures.
National Constituent Assembly
The king eventually gave into the National Assembly and requested that the FIrst and Second Estate to join the National Assembly. This new legislative body was known by this term., New name taken by the National Assembly
Banknotes issued by the National Constituent Assembly in France during the French Revolution. The Assignats were issued after the confiscation of church properties in 1790 because the government was bankrupt.
Civil Constitution of the clergy
A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
City at which Louis XVI was apprehended while trying to escape from France to the Austrian Netherlands
Declaration of Pillnitz
afraid that other countries would follow France's lead and begin revolutions, Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia issued this declaration in August 27, 1791, inviting other European monarchs to intervene on behalf of Louis XVI if his monarchy was threatened.
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
This was a political party within the National Convention named because the people that made up this party sat on the highest benches in the assembly hall. These people were the activists within the Convention. It worried that the Girondists would become conservative because of their already moderate beliefs. Although they were in competition with each other, It eventually won due to their alliance with the Sans-Culottes, resulting in a more radical group of people. They believed in equal outcome.
the September Massacres
a local legislative body, the Paris Commune, executed around 1,200 prisoners in the prisons whom were assumed to be counter-revolutionaries
Governed by the French Republic from 1792-95, members were elected through universal male suffrage and became divided along political lines. Declared the end of the monarchy. Brought Louis XVI to trial and executed him and his wife.
execution of Louis XVI
Louis XVI was killed due to his monarchial views on ruling France, which all of the citizens greatly disagreed with
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
France at war with Europe
Early in 1793 Great Britain, Holland, and Spain joined Prussia and Austria against France. The French suffered a string of defeats. To reinforce the French army, Jacobin leaders in the Convention in February 1793 urged the Convention to order a draft of 300,000 French citizens between the ages of 18 and 40. By 1794 the army had grown to 800,000 and included women.
the Reign of Terror
began when Robespierre came into power. He was an enemy of the French Republic. During this time Robespierre would accuse people of going against the government and he would daily execute them in the newly formed way of torture/killing, the guillotine.
the Committee of Public Safety
The National Convention formed this and gave it dictatorial power to deal with the crisis affecting France, primarily the economic struggles for the sans-culottes. Robespierre and other Mountain representatives were members.
the Levee en Masse
the great draft started by the French government to gather as many men as possible for their European wars
the Republic of Virtue
(French Revolution) Government led by the Jacobins, A democratic republic composed of good citizens.
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
A political club consisting of both men and women but leadership was solely bourgeoisie, Main goal was the removal of the king and establishment of a republic
Women and the revolution
women gained rights during the revolution, but did not have equal rights with men. Many women wrote about women deserving equal rights as man and rights concerning divorce.
They got rid of the Christian calendar. The closed churches persecuted clergy and forced priests to marry. This alienated people from the revolutionaries and the new republic because they felt it would rouse opposition.
came to power along with the Committee of Public Safety and was responsible for many executions during the Reign of Terror; instituted after the death of the Royal Family; killed people who weren't "radical" or "revolutionary" enough
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the Committee of Public Safety to execute Robespierre and several other leading members of the Terror. This ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution. The name refers to 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), the date according to the French Revolutionary Calendar when this revolt occurred.
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
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