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Resonate through entire vocal tract (nasals, liquids, glides) similar to vowels.
resonance occurs primarily in the front of the point of constriction (stops,fricatives,affricates)
Voiceless Consonants (sound source)
supraglottal noise sources, aperiodic laryngeal source: noise, aspirations
Classification of Consonants
Manner (how the sound is made), Place (where the sound is made), and Voicing (status of vocal folds)
Production of Approximants
have limited articulatory constrictions that alter resonant frequencies, formant transitions are typically faster than vowels, classification based on syllable position
similar to /i/ high front tongue position, genioglossus active, Low F1 and High F2, formant transitions vary depending on adjacent vowels
similiar to /u/. high, back tongue position, rounded lips, Low F1 and F2, formant transitions vary depending on adjacent vowels
/l/ syllable inital and final
inital: tongue dorsum in low, light /l/ and final:tongue dorsum is high, dark /l/
Most speech sounds are
oral / non nasal, VP port is closed, soft palate elevated against posterior pharyngeal wall, levator palatini muscles are active
Degree of VP closure
varies with phonetic context: Tighter for oral obstruents, moderate for high vowels, looser for low vowels
Opening the VP port/ Nasal
creates a large resonant cavity. Results in low-frequency nasal resonance.
Acoustics of Nasal Stops
Amplitude is low, Antiresonances, soft walls of nasal cavities absorb energy,
Production of fricatives
sound source in upper vocal tract, air forced through constriction creates turbulance
fricative in the vocal tract
labiodental , linguadental, alveolar, postalveolar- May be voiced or voiceless
tongue tip approximates upper incisors, Superior longitudinal tongue muscle active,
Virtually no cavity anterior to constriction
low-intensity friction (noise), frication has a wide frequency bandwidth
tongue forms constriction at alveolar ridge, air flows through midline groove of tongue against teeth,short anterior cavity emphasizes high frequencies
tongue forms groove in alveopalatal region, lips are often rounded, longer anterior cavity emphasizes lower frequencies
Production of Stops
articulatory closure in oral cavity, VP port closed, Pio rises during closure, Pio drops at release, release burst occurs, audibly releases stops/plosives
/k,g/ styloglossus and palatoglossus muscle raise tongue dorsum. Contact is either velar or palatal depending on vowel context.
Acoustics of Stops (Manner)
presence of a near silent interval during a stop closure, presence of a release burst,Oral Closure lowers F1
Affricates show features of both stops and fricatives
release burst, friction noise, silent/voiced closure region
hyponasality or hypernasality
may result from problems with VP control EX: cleft palate or motor speech disorders
Poor control of VP mechanism may
may impair production of oral obstruents that require build up of intraoral air pressure
Problems of interarticulator timing in
motor speech disorders may affect VOT and stop voicing contrasts
the way in which 2 or more articulators move simulatneously to produce 2 or more different phonemes
the way in which speakers vary F0 levels to signal speech act type/ applies to phrases and sentences
varying the frequency, intensity, and duration of a syllable/word to emphasize a specific part of a syllable/word/ applies to the syllable
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