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Slides Part 3-Consonants


Resonate through entire vocal tract (nasals, liquids, glides) similar to vowels.

S/R #2

Free airflow, articulators shapes vocal tract.

S/R #3

characterized by formant frequencies

S/R #4

have a periodic laryngeal source (all voiced)


Blocked or restricted airflow

N/O #2

resonance occurs primarily in the front of the point of constriction (stops,fricatives,affricates)

N/O #3

Have aperiodic sound source in upper vocal tract

N/0 #4

may be voiced or voiceless

Voiced Consonants (sound source)

periodic laryngeal source

Voiceless Consonants (sound source)

supraglottal noise sources, aperiodic laryngeal source: noise, aspirations

Nonresonants (sound source) Stops

Stop bursts:release built up pressure. Transient noise

Nonresonants/ Friction

air forced through a narrow channel becomes turbulent; sustained noise

Voiced nonresonants

Combine periodic and aperiodic sources

Classification of Consonants

Manner (how the sound is made), Place (where the sound is made), and Voicing (status of vocal folds)


liquids /l r/ and glides /j w/

Production of Approximants

have limited articulatory constrictions that alter resonant frequencies, formant transitions are typically faster than vowels, classification based on syllable position

Consonants occur on


Vowels form

the nucleus

Glide /j/

similar to /i/ high front tongue position, genioglossus active, Low F1 and High F2, formant transitions vary depending on adjacent vowels

Glide /w/

similiar to /u/. high, back tongue position, rounded lips, Low F1 and F2, formant transitions vary depending on adjacent vowels

Liquids /l, r/

Tongue-tip raised toward alveolar ridge.


tongue tip contact with alveolar ridge, sides of tongue down:lateral


no tongue tip contact with alveolar ridge, often retroflexed and has lip rounding

Acoustic of /l,r/ evident in

F2 and especially F3, F3 low for r

F3 level for /l/

F1=260, F2=1300, F3=2700

liquids may function as

syllable nuclei

/l/ syllable inital and final

inital: tongue dorsum in low, light /l/ and final:tongue dorsum is high, dark /l/

syllable final /r/

often vocalize or realized as an extension of the preceding vowel

Most speech sounds are

oral / non nasal, VP port is closed, soft palate elevated against posterior pharyngeal wall, levator palatini muscles are active

Degree of VP closure

varies with phonetic context: Tighter for oral obstruents, moderate for high vowels, looser for low vowels

Nasals require

Open VP port/ lowered velum

Nasal at lips


Nasal at alveolar ridge


Nasal at the soft palate

/n/ as in ing

Opening the VP port/ Nasal

creates a large resonant cavity. Results in low-frequency nasal resonance.

Acoustics of Nasal Stops

Amplitude is low, Antiresonances, soft walls of nasal cavities absorb energy,


damped bands of energy

Large resonanting space yields (nasal)

High damping

Acoustic Radiation through nostrils is damped because

of relatively small openings

Production of fricatives

sound source in upper vocal tract, air forced through constriction creates turbulance

fricative in the vocal tract

labiodental , linguadental, alveolar, postalveolar- May be voiced or voiceless

Labiodental Fricative

lower lip approximates upper incisors, obicularis oris is active

Lingua-dental Fricative

tongue tip approximates upper incisors, Superior longitudinal tongue muscle active,

Virtually no cavity anterior to constriction

low-intensity friction (noise), frication has a wide frequency bandwidth

Alveolar fricatives

tongue forms constriction at alveolar ridge, air flows through midline groove of tongue against teeth,short anterior cavity emphasizes high frequencies

Postalveolar fricatives

tongue forms groove in alveopalatal region, lips are often rounded, longer anterior cavity emphasizes lower frequencies

Friction noise stronger

than in non sibilants

Source and Filter in /s/

noise source at alveolar ridge, small anterior cavity

quarter wave resonator between

alveolar ridge and lips

Solving RF


high frequencies emphasized for

alveolar fricatives

low frequencies emphasized for

palatal fricatives

Glottal Fricative /h/

no supraglottal constriction, usually involves turbulent noise at the glottis

Production of Stops

articulatory closure in oral cavity, VP port closed, Pio rises during closure, Pio drops at release, release burst occurs, audibly releases stops/plosives

a release-burst

oral release yields a transient noise source

Oral stops have

closed VP port

Bilabial stops have

O.Oris used for lip closure

Alveolar stops have

superior longitudinal muscle elevates tongue tip

Velar Stops

/k,g/ styloglossus and palatoglossus muscle raise tongue dorsum. Contact is either velar or palatal depending on vowel context.

Glottal Stop

Vocal folds tightly approximated

Acoustics of Stops (Manner)

presence of a near silent interval during a stop closure, presence of a release burst,Oral Closure lowers F1

Acoustics of Stops (F2)

rises for stops that precede vowels, falls for stops following vowels

Place of articulation most evident in

Frequency range of most intense portion of release burst


Low Frequencies (600 Hz or lower)

Alveolar Stops/artic

higher frequencies

Velar Stops/artic

burst frequencies depend on vowel

F2 relates to

tongue position in oral cavity and reflects placement of following vowel


voice onset time- time between stop release and phonation onset

Syllable-inital stops mainly diffferentiated by

VOT- characterizes production of stops

VOT Types

Zero-onset/short lag, Long lag/VOT

Zero-onset/short lag

voicing begins at or very shortly after stop release /b,d,g/

Long lag/VOT

voicing begins well after release initial /p,t,k/

Acoustics of Affticates

consists of a stop releasing into a fricative/ "ch" -church "dg"- edge

Affricates show features of both stops and fricatives

release burst, friction noise, silent/voiced closure region

hyponasality or hypernasality

may result from problems with VP control EX: cleft palate or motor speech disorders

Poor control of VP mechanism may

may impair production of oral obstruents that require build up of intraoral air pressure

Problems of interarticulator timing in

motor speech disorders may affect VOT and stop voicing contrasts


the way in which 2 or more articulators move simulatneously to produce 2 or more different phonemes

Coarticulation 2

2 articulators active at the same time for two sounds


Intonation, Stress, Duration

Suprasegmentals features

span units larger than a phoneme


the way in which speakers vary F0 levels to signal speech act type/ applies to phrases and sentences


varying the frequency, intensity, and duration of a syllable/word to emphasize a specific part of a syllable/word/ applies to the syllable


Length of time taken to produce a specific sound; depends on stress

Characteristics of Stressed Syllables

Higher F0, Longer duration, greater intensity.

higher F0

increase vocal fold tension, higher subglottal pressure

Longer duration

articulators move to more extreme positions

greater intensity

higher subglottic pressure

Stress is relative meaning

how a syllable relates to a nearby syllables in the utterance

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