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Consonant Types

Slides Part 3-Consonants
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Sonorants/Resonance
Resonate through entire vocal tract (nasals, liquids, glides) similar to vowels.
S/R #2
Free airflow, articulators shapes vocal tract.
S/R #3
characterized by formant frequencies
S/R #4
have a periodic laryngeal source (all voiced)
Nonresonants/Obstruants
Blocked or restricted airflow
N/O #2
resonance occurs primarily in the front of the point of constriction (stops,fricatives,affricates)
N/O #3
Have aperiodic sound source in upper vocal tract
N/0 #4
may be voiced or voiceless
Voiced Consonants (sound source)
periodic laryngeal source
Voiceless Consonants (sound source)
supraglottal noise sources, aperiodic laryngeal source: noise, aspirations
Nonresonants (sound source) Stops
Stop bursts:release built up pressure. Transient noise
Nonresonants/ Friction
air forced through a narrow channel becomes turbulent; sustained noise
Voiced nonresonants
Combine periodic and aperiodic sources
Classification of Consonants
Manner (how the sound is made), Place (where the sound is made), and Voicing (status of vocal folds)
Approximants
liquids /l r/ and glides /j w/
Production of Approximants
have limited articulatory constrictions that alter resonant frequencies, formant transitions are typically faster than vowels, classification based on syllable position
Consonants occur on
Periphery
Vowels form
the nucleus
Glide /j/
similar to /i/ high front tongue position, genioglossus active, Low F1 and High F2, formant transitions vary depending on adjacent vowels
Glide /w/
similiar to /u/. high, back tongue position, rounded lips, Low F1 and F2, formant transitions vary depending on adjacent vowels
Liquids /l, r/
Tongue-tip raised toward alveolar ridge.
/l/
tongue tip contact with alveolar ridge, sides of tongue down:lateral
/r/
no tongue tip contact with alveolar ridge, often retroflexed and has lip rounding
Acoustic of /l,r/ evident in
F2 and especially F3, F3 low for r
F3 level for /l/
F1=260, F2=1300, F3=2700
liquids may function as
syllable nuclei
/l/ syllable inital and final
inital: tongue dorsum in low, light /l/ and final:tongue dorsum is high, dark /l/
syllable final /r/
often vocalize or realized as an extension of the preceding vowel
Most speech sounds are
oral / non nasal, VP port is closed, soft palate elevated against posterior pharyngeal wall, levator palatini muscles are active
Degree of VP closure
varies with phonetic context: Tighter for oral obstruents, moderate for high vowels, looser for low vowels
Nasals require
Open VP port/ lowered velum
Nasal at lips
/m/
Nasal at alveolar ridge
/n/
Nasal at the soft palate
/n/ as in ing
Opening the VP port/ Nasal
creates a large resonant cavity. Results in low-frequency nasal resonance.
Acoustics of Nasal Stops
Amplitude is low, Antiresonances, soft walls of nasal cavities absorb energy,
Antiresonances
damped bands of energy
Large resonanting space yields (nasal)
High damping
Acoustic Radiation through nostrils is damped because
of relatively small openings
Production of fricatives
sound source in upper vocal tract, air forced through constriction creates turbulance
fricative in the vocal tract
labiodental , linguadental, alveolar, postalveolar- May be voiced or voiceless
Labiodental Fricative
lower lip approximates upper incisors, obicularis oris is active
Lingua-dental Fricative
tongue tip approximates upper incisors, Superior longitudinal tongue muscle active,
Virtually no cavity anterior to constriction
low-intensity friction (noise), frication has a wide frequency bandwidth
Alveolar fricatives
tongue forms constriction at alveolar ridge, air flows through midline groove of tongue against teeth,short anterior cavity emphasizes high frequencies
Postalveolar fricatives
tongue forms groove in alveopalatal region, lips are often rounded, longer anterior cavity emphasizes lower frequencies
Friction noise stronger
than in non sibilants
Source and Filter in /s/
noise source at alveolar ridge, small anterior cavity
quarter wave resonator between
alveolar ridge and lips
Solving RF
33,100/4
high frequencies emphasized for
alveolar fricatives
low frequencies emphasized for
palatal fricatives
Glottal Fricative /h/
no supraglottal constriction, usually involves turbulent noise at the glottis
Production of Stops
articulatory closure in oral cavity, VP port closed, Pio rises during closure, Pio drops at release, release burst occurs, audibly releases stops/plosives
a release-burst
oral release yields a transient noise source
Oral stops have
closed VP port
Bilabial stops have
O.Oris used for lip closure
Alveolar stops have
superior longitudinal muscle elevates tongue tip
Velar Stops
/k,g/ styloglossus and palatoglossus muscle raise tongue dorsum. Contact is either velar or palatal depending on vowel context.
Glottal Stop
Vocal folds tightly approximated
Acoustics of Stops (Manner)
presence of a near silent interval during a stop closure, presence of a release burst,Oral Closure lowers F1
Acoustics of Stops (F2)
rises for stops that precede vowels, falls for stops following vowels
Place of articulation most evident in
Frequency range of most intense portion of release burst
Bilabials/articulation
Low Frequencies (600 Hz or lower)
Alveolar Stops/artic
higher frequencies
Velar Stops/artic
burst frequencies depend on vowel
F2 relates to
tongue position in oral cavity and reflects placement of following vowel
VOT
voice onset time- time between stop release and phonation onset
Syllable-inital stops mainly diffferentiated by
VOT- characterizes production of stops
VOT Types
Zero-onset/short lag, Long lag/VOT
Zero-onset/short lag
voicing begins at or very shortly after stop release /b,d,g/
Long lag/VOT
voicing begins well after release initial /p,t,k/
Acoustics of Affticates
consists of a stop releasing into a fricative/ "ch" -church "dg"- edge
Affricates show features of both stops and fricatives
release burst, friction noise, silent/voiced closure region
hyponasality or hypernasality
may result from problems with VP control EX: cleft palate or motor speech disorders
Poor control of VP mechanism may
may impair production of oral obstruents that require build up of intraoral air pressure
Problems of interarticulator timing in
motor speech disorders may affect VOT and stop voicing contrasts
Coarticulation
the way in which 2 or more articulators move simulatneously to produce 2 or more different phonemes
Coarticulation 2
2 articulators active at the same time for two sounds
Suprasegmentals
Intonation, Stress, Duration
Suprasegmentals features
span units larger than a phoneme
Intonation
the way in which speakers vary F0 levels to signal speech act type/ applies to phrases and sentences
Stress
varying the frequency, intensity, and duration of a syllable/word to emphasize a specific part of a syllable/word/ applies to the syllable
Duration
Length of time taken to produce a specific sound; depends on stress
Characteristics of Stressed Syllables
Higher F0, Longer duration, greater intensity.
higher F0
increase vocal fold tension, higher subglottal pressure
Longer duration
articulators move to more extreme positions
greater intensity
higher subglottic pressure
Stress is relative meaning
how a syllable relates to a nearby syllables in the utterance