42 terms

Unit 5b, animal diversity review sheet

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difference between protostomes and deuterostomes
proto: mouth develops first
deutero: anus develops first
differences between phylum and their tissue layers
porifera: no tissue layers
Cnideria: Diploblastic
Ctenophora-Echinodermata: Triploblastic
differences between phylum in terms of body cavities
Porifera-Platyhelminthes: Acoelomate
Nematoda: Pseudocoelomate
Mollusca-Echinodermata: Coelomate
differences between phylum in terms of symmetry
Porifera: Asymmetrical
Cnideria: Radial
Ctenophora: Radial/Bilateral
Platyhelminthes-Arthropoda: Bilateral
Echinodermata: bilateral as embryo, radial as adult
characteristics of Porifera
-Parazoa
-no symmetry, no tissue layers, Acoelomate
-free-swimming larva, sessile(immobile) as adults
characteristics of Chordata
-bilateral symmetry
-deuterostome coelomates
-Nerve cord with Notochord or vertebrata
-segmented bodies and muscles
-Pharyngeal slits are present in all embryos
-post-anal tail at some point in their lives
characteristics of Echinodermata
-ex. sand dollars, sea stars, sea urchins/cucumbers
-deuterostomes with an endoskeleton
-bilaterally symmetrical as larvae but pentaradially as adults
-have a water-based vascular system
differences between Parazoa and Eumetazoa
Para: lack defined tissues
Eumetazoa: have distinct and well defined tissues
characteristics of Platyhelminthes
-ex. flatworms
-central nervous system to process infor from sensory structures
-no body cavity or organs, 1 opening
what are Psuedocoelomates? what are their features?
Psuedocoelomates have a cavity between mesoderm and endoderm
characteristics of Cnidaria
-1 opening
-tentacles with stinging cells called nematocysts
-life cycle of polyp(stationary) to Medusa (free living)
-includes corals, jellyfish
characteristics of Nematoda
-roundworms, abundant and diverse
-covered with a tough cuticle that molts
-well developed digestive system
characteristics of Mollusca
-snails, clams, squids, chitons
-soft body with a hard shell in most
-cephalization
-2 openings, protosomes
-body plan of foot for locomotion, mantle for everything else
what are nephridia, mallpighain tubules, spiracles
Nephridia: used in mollusks to remove Nitrogenous wastes
Mallpighain tubules: used by Terrestrial insects to remove nitrogenous wastes
Spiracles: openings in terrestrial insects' exoskeleton for air to enter the tracheae
characteristics of bivalves
-ex. Clams, Mussels
-only mollusks with no radula or a distinct head
-have 2 hinged shells
-use an inhalant and exhalant siphon for oxygen, food, waste removal and reproduction
what is a radula
hundreds of tiny chitinous teeth, makes up a rasping tongue like structure that is used by most mollusks to scrape up food
what phyla are hermaphroditic
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what are the arthropod classes
Chelicerata: Spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crab
Decapod Crustacea: shrimp, lobsters, barnacles
Hexapoda(insects): flies, beetles, grasshoppers
Myriapoda: centipedes, millipedes
what is the evolutionary innovation found in arthropods?
segmentation (in some classes specialized segments of head, thorax and abdomen) and Exoskeletons
what is metamorphosis?
-immature larva are wormlike
-resting stage in a pupa/chrysalis
-molts into adult form
examples of echinoderms
starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber, sand dollars
what are Papulae
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what are the reproductive methods of echinoderms?
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what are lancelets and tunicates? What is the difference between Urochordata and chordate?
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what is the operculum?
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what are the functions of chitin?
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what was a critical development for life on land?
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what are ectotherms, endotherms, what are some examples?
ecto: cold blooded, everything besides mammalia and aves
endo: warm blooded, classes mammalia and aves
what are the characteristics of all vertebrates?
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why can't amphibians live completely on land?
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what adaptations do birds have to deal with flying?
-Efficient respiration: air passes all the way through lungs in one direction
-Efficient circulation: 4 chambered hear
-Endothermy: high body temperature allows a higher metabolic rate
what are monotremes and how are they unique?
the only Mammals that lay shelled eggs, ex. is Platypus and echidna
Bony fish(ray fish) have what unique features?
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Cartilaginous fish have what unique features?
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what genus and species are humans?
genus: Homo
species: Sapiens
what classes have 2,3 and 4 chambered hearts?
2: Cephalaspidomorphi, Chondricthyes and Actinopterygil
3: Amphibians and Reptilia
4: Aves and Mammalia
what classes have lungs?
Cephalaspidomorphi-actinopterygil: Gills
amphibia: Larva have gills, adults have lungs
mammalia-aves: Lungs
what innovation in the chordates led to the evolution of the vertebrates?
the notochord
how are we humans related to Echinoderms?
humans and all chordates are deuterostomes, Echinoderms are the only invertebrates that are deuterostomes
what class do insects belong to?
Hexapoda
what class do centipedes belong to?
Myriapoda
what class do barnacles belong to?
Decapod Crustacea