36 terms

Ch. 6 Enlightenment & Revolution

The following are the terms for Chapter 6 (Enlightenment and Revolution) in Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction.
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Scientific Revolution
a new way of thinking around the natural world that was based upon careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs
Nicolaus Copernicus
a Polish cleric and astronomer who thought the geocentric theory did not accurately explain the movements of the sun, moon, and planets
Heliocentric theory
sun-centered view of the universe
Johannes Kepler
the assistant to Tycho Brahe that continued his work on recording the movements of planets
Galileo Galilei
Italian scientist who built on the new theories about astronomy. His first and last name start with the same letter.
Scientific Method
a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
Francis Bacon
an English statesman and writer who had a passionate interest in science who was one of the two important thinkers
Rene Descartes
developed analytical geometry, which linked algebra and geometry. He was one of the two important thinkers.
Sir Isaac Newton
great English scientist who helped to bring together their breakthroughs under a single theory of motion and created three laws of motion
Robert Hooke
English scientist who formulated the law of elasticity and proposed a wave theory of light and formulated a theory of planetary motion and proposed the inverse square law of gravitational attraction and discovered the cellular structure of cork and introd
Andreas Vesalius
a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy
Robert Boyle
An English physicist and chemist, this man discovered the nature of elements and compounds and the basis of modern chemistry.
Enlightenment
a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
Social Contract
an agreement where people hand over their rights to a strong ruler in exchange with law and order
John Locke
philosopher who held a different, more positive, view of human nature who believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves
Natural Right
right that belongs to all humans from birth, such as life, liberty, and property
Philosophe
french for "philosophers"; people who believed that others could apply reason to all aspects of life whom the core of their beliefs was formed by five concepts
Voltaire
Also known as Francois Marie Arouet, he published more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, and drama
Montesquieu
he devoted himself to the study of political liberty
Jean Jacques Rosseau
a philosophe who was passionately committed to individual freedom and won recognition as a writer of essays
Separation of Powers
interpreting laws to see how each applied to a specific case; it was later called checks and balances
Salon
regular social gatherings held in large drawing rooms by several wealthy women in Paris
Baroque
characterized by a grand, ornate design that can be seen in elaborate places such as Versailles and in numerous paintings
Neoclassical
the artistic style of the late 1700s; "new classical"
Enlightened Despot(s)
enlightened "absolute rulers" who embraced the ideas and made reforms that reflected the Enlightenment spirit
Catherine the Great
philosophe who ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796 when she arrested and confined her own husband
Declaration of Independence
written by political leader and third president Thomas Jefferson, it was a document that the Second Continental Congress issued in 1776 that rebelled against a king who refused to give the colonies the same political rights as the people in Britain and broke the Social Contract.
Thomas Jefferson
a political leader and the third president of the United States of America whom was the author of the Declaration of Independence
American Revolution
The political war that began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought freedom from England; the settlers in the thirteen colonies won the war when Cornwallis surrendered; it was also a former slogan by Chevrolet.
Articles of Confederation
the nation's first constitution; the document adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Constitution
the document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments.
Checks and Balances
a system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Federal System
a system where the government is divided between national and state
Bill of Rights
the 1st 10 amendments in the Constitution
Geocentric Theory
in the Middle Ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe
Mary Wollstonecraft
An English writer who wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Women", arguing that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be so because of lack of education
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