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Battle of Hastings

a battle at which William the Conqueror defeated the English nobles and declared himself king of England


organizations of traders and other businesspeople

William the Conqueror

a king who unified England under his strong rule

King John

an English king who signed the Magna Carta

Magna Carta

a document signed by King John that limited the power of the king and set forth important ideas about law

due process of law

the idea that people must be treated fairly under the law

Hugh Capet

the first king of the Capetian dynasty

Capetian dynasty

a series of kings in France who helped make the country a single kingdom

Hundred Years' War

a series of wars between England and France that lasted from 1337 to 1453

Joan of Arc

a woman who led the French against the English, who later burned her as a witch

Battle of Agincourt

an important English victory in the Hundred Years' War

bubonic plague

a disease that killed many people in Europe during the Middle Ages

Black Death

another term for the bubonic plague

Holy Roman Empire

a kingdom that united much of central Europe toward the end of the Middle Ages

Otto I

the first king to be crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

Charles V

a strong emperor who came close to uniting the Holy Roman Empire

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