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46 terms

Cytology

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cell
smallest unit of all living things
cell membrane
surrounds cells; composed of protein and lipids; protects the inside of cells; supports cell; selectively permeable (like a window screen)
nucleus
"control center" of the cell; contains instructions for cell activities
nuclear membrane
encloses nucleus; allows passage of materials in and out of nucleus
nucleolus
found in nucleus; contains protein and nucleic acids (RNA)
deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA- genetic material
ribonucleic acid
RNA
chromosomes
contain genes (coded instructions)
mitochondria
"powerhouse of a cell"; provide energy; release energy in food; produces ATP
cristae
folded inner membrane of mitochondria that contains enzymes
cell respiration
releases carbon dioxide and water, which are used to make glucose
adenosine triphosphate
ATP - energy storage molecule
cytoplasm
"protoplasm" - jelly-like material within a cell containing organelles
vacuole
store food and water; store wastes and help excrete them
centrioles
only in animal cells; form spindle in mitosis
chloroplasts
contains chlorophyll and cartenoids
organelle
small organ-like parts of the cell
prokaryotic
"before the nucleus"; no nuclear membrane or organelles
eukaryotic
nuclei with membrane; plant/animal cells
pinocytosis
cell drinks
phagocytosis
cell eats
selectively permeable
allowing things in and out
endoplasmic reticulum
a network of canals which run throughout the cytoplasm; transports materials throughout a cell
specialization
different cells do different things
lysosomes
break down waste products and food molecules
ribosomes
site of protein synthesis; sometimes found free in cytoplasm
golgi apparatus
center of manufacturing and shipping
cell wall
rigid structure surrounding membrane - found only in plant cells
enzymes
proteins which speed up chemical reactions without being used up
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Dutch shopkeeper who looked at pondwater; observed "animalcules"-single celled organisms; first person to see living cells
Robert Hooke
English scientist who looked at cork cells and observed tiny boxes -cells "litte rooms"; coined the term "cell"
Matthias Schleidan
German botanist who noticed all plants seemed to be made of tiny units (cells)
Theodor Schwann
German scientist who observed animal tissue and stated that cells were the building blocks of both plants and cells; said there are different kinds of cells but similarities between plant and animal cells
Rudolf Virchow
German physician who concluded that cells are produced only by other living cells
Cell Theory
all living things are made up of 1 or more cells; cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; all cells come only from other living cells
mitosis
cell reproduction
organic
composed of Carbon and Hydrogen
chloroplasts
found only in PLANT cells; produce chlorophyll and carotenoids; used in photosynthesis
passive transport
movement of substances through the cell membrane without the input of energy
diffusion
movement of molecules from an area where there is more of them into an area where there is less of them (moving from greater to lesser concentration)
concentration
amount of a substance in a particular area
facilitated diffusion
uses transport proteins to move small molecules across the cell membrane
osmosis
diffusion of WATER through a selectively permeable membrane
isotonic
equal amount of solutes and solvent inside and outside of the cell
hypotonic
concentration of solute inside cell is higher than outside cell - water moves into cell using osmotic pressure
hypertonic
concentration of solute outside cell is higher than inside cell - water flows out of the cell