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smallest unit of all living things

cell membrane

surrounds cells; composed of protein and lipids; protects the inside of cells; supports cell; selectively permeable (like a window screen)


"control center" of the cell; contains instructions for cell activities

nuclear membrane

encloses nucleus; allows passage of materials in and out of nucleus


found in nucleus; contains protein and nucleic acids (RNA)

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA- genetic material

ribonucleic acid



contain genes (coded instructions)


"powerhouse of a cell"; provide energy; release energy in food; produces ATP


folded inner membrane of mitochondria that contains enzymes

cell respiration

releases carbon dioxide and water, which are used to make glucose

adenosine triphosphate

ATP - energy storage molecule


"protoplasm" - jelly-like material within a cell containing organelles


store food and water; store wastes and help excrete them


only in animal cells; form spindle in mitosis


contains chlorophyll and cartenoids


small organ-like parts of the cell


"before the nucleus"; no nuclear membrane or organelles


nuclei with membrane; plant/animal cells


cell drinks


cell eats

selectively permeable

allowing things in and out

endoplasmic reticulum

a network of canals which run throughout the cytoplasm; transports materials throughout a cell


different cells do different things


break down waste products and food molecules


site of protein synthesis; sometimes found free in cytoplasm

golgi apparatus

center of manufacturing and shipping

cell wall

rigid structure surrounding membrane - found only in plant cells


proteins which speed up chemical reactions without being used up

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Dutch shopkeeper who looked at pondwater; observed "animalcules"-single celled organisms; first person to see living cells

Robert Hooke

English scientist who looked at cork cells and observed tiny boxes -cells "litte rooms"; coined the term "cell"

Matthias Schleidan

German botanist who noticed all plants seemed to be made of tiny units (cells)

Theodor Schwann

German scientist who observed animal tissue and stated that cells were the building blocks of both plants and cells; said there are different kinds of cells but similarities between plant and animal cells

Rudolf Virchow

German physician who concluded that cells are produced only by other living cells

Cell Theory

all living things are made up of 1 or more cells; cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; all cells come only from other living cells


cell reproduction


composed of Carbon and Hydrogen


found only in PLANT cells; produce chlorophyll and carotenoids; used in photosynthesis

passive transport

movement of substances through the cell membrane without the input of energy


movement of molecules from an area where there is more of them into an area where there is less of them (moving from greater to lesser concentration)


amount of a substance in a particular area

facilitated diffusion

uses transport proteins to move small molecules across the cell membrane


diffusion of WATER through a selectively permeable membrane


equal amount of solutes and solvent inside and outside of the cell


concentration of solute inside cell is higher than outside cell - water moves into cell using osmotic pressure


concentration of solute outside cell is higher than inside cell - water flows out of the cell

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