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1. Review different stage theories proposed by Freud, Piaget, Erikson and Kohlberg 2. Assess developmental problems that arise in the different stage theories 3. Examine moral development in stages according to Kohlberg

Staged Theories of Human Development

Fraud felt that physical symptoms can be as a result of

mental or emotional factors

According to Freud, adult neurosis is caused in part by

repressed memories of early childhood emotional experiences such as: sex, aggression, jealousy

Freud's developmental stages are based on

the unconscious mind and psychosexual impulses

Pleasure centers of Freud's developmental stages

0-18 months = oral
18-36 months = anal
3-6 years = phallic
6-puberty = latency (dormant sexual feelings)
puberty on = genital (maturation of sexual interest)

What is the preconcious mind

thoughts we are not aware of but can become aware of by focusing attention on them

What is the unconcious mind

thoughts repressed and kept out of awareness via defensive mechanism

What is the conscious mind

contains the thoughts of which we are aware

How is unconsciour thought revealed

free association

What are dreams according to Freud

symbols of wish fulfillment

The Id

Develops first
Ruled by pleasure
No awareness
Contains drives (ex. aggression, sexual, etc)

The Ego (who should I be)

Develops second
Operates in reality
Uses defense mechanism to defend from reality
Monitors interpersonal relations
Mediates conflict amoung the Id, ego and superego

Superego (what I should not do)

Develops third, or not at all
Self-punishment and self-praise

Eriksons developmental stages

Trust vs. mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Initiative vs. guilt
Industry vs. inferiority
Ego identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Ego intergrity vs. despair

Trust vs. mistrust stage depends upon what

consistency and sameness of experience provided by caregiver

Strong trust -->

child develops self confidence

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt depends upon

firmness of caretaker before autonomy develops

how do shame and doubt take hold

shame = child is self-conscious due to negative exposure and punishment
doubt = parent overly shame child

initiatives vs. guilt

initiative develops out of performing tasks for the same of activity
guilt develops over goals contemplated

industry vs. inferiority

industry develops from engaging in creative endeavors and learning about fundamental technology
inferiority occurs if tools, skills and status amoung peers is in despair

identity vs. role confusion

identity maifests via preoccupation with heros and ideology
role confusion develops out of doubts about sexual and vocational identity

intimacy vs. isolation

intimacy = self abandomenet, mutual orgasm, friendhsip, lifelong attachments
isolation = separation from other and view that others are dangerous

generativity vs. stagnation

generativity = raising kids, guiding next generation, altruism
stagnation = inability to provide nurturance and love, self-concern, isolation and absence of intimacy

integrity vs. despair

integrity = sense that life has been productive and worthwhile, acceptance of place in life cycle
despair = loss of hope, misanthropy and disgust, fear of death

Piaget's Cognitive Development Levels

Piaget development levels

Critical achievement by the end of Piaget's sensorymotor stage

Objects have an existence outside of the child's involvment with them
Expression of mental symbols and words

Characteristics of the preoperational stage

Immanent justice - punishment for bad is immanent
Egocentrism - child sees self as center of universe
Phenomenalistic causality - events that occur together appear to cause one another
Animistic thinking - physical objects gain feelings and intentions

Concrete operations stage

Conservation - flat ball of clay is same amount of clay as was in a ball
reversibility - ice can become water and vice versa

Formal stage

Abstract thought

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