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Behavioral - Block1 - Human Development

1. Review different stage theories proposed by Freud, Piaget, Erikson and Kohlberg 2. Assess developmental problems that arise in the different stage theories 3. Examine moral development in stages according to Kohlberg
Staged Theories of Human Development
Fraud felt that physical symptoms can be as a result of
mental or emotional factors
According to Freud, adult neurosis is caused in part by
repressed memories of early childhood emotional experiences such as: sex, aggression, jealousy
Freud's developmental stages are based on
the unconscious mind and psychosexual impulses
Pleasure centers of Freud's developmental stages
0-18 months = oral
18-36 months = anal
3-6 years = phallic
6-puberty = latency (dormant sexual feelings)
puberty on = genital (maturation of sexual interest)
What is the preconcious mind
thoughts we are not aware of but can become aware of by focusing attention on them
What is the unconcious mind
thoughts repressed and kept out of awareness via defensive mechanism
What is the conscious mind
contains the thoughts of which we are aware
How is unconsciour thought revealed
free association
What are dreams according to Freud
symbols of wish fulfillment
The Id
Develops first
Ruled by pleasure
No awareness
Contains drives (ex. aggression, sexual, etc)
The Ego (who should I be)
Develops second
Operates in reality
Uses defense mechanism to defend from reality
Monitors interpersonal relations
Mediates conflict amoung the Id, ego and superego
Superego (what I should not do)
Develops third, or not at all
Self-punishment and self-praise
Eriksons developmental stages
Trust vs. mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Initiative vs. guilt
Industry vs. inferiority
Ego identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Ego intergrity vs. despair
Trust vs. mistrust stage depends upon what
consistency and sameness of experience provided by caregiver
Strong trust -->
child develops self confidence
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt depends upon
firmness of caretaker before autonomy develops
how do shame and doubt take hold
shame = child is self-conscious due to negative exposure and punishment
doubt = parent overly shame child
initiatives vs. guilt
initiative develops out of performing tasks for the same of activity
guilt develops over goals contemplated
industry vs. inferiority
industry develops from engaging in creative endeavors and learning about fundamental technology
inferiority occurs if tools, skills and status amoung peers is in despair
identity vs. role confusion
identity maifests via preoccupation with heros and ideology
role confusion develops out of doubts about sexual and vocational identity
intimacy vs. isolation
intimacy = self abandomenet, mutual orgasm, friendhsip, lifelong attachments
isolation = separation from other and view that others are dangerous
generativity vs. stagnation
generativity = raising kids, guiding next generation, altruism
stagnation = inability to provide nurturance and love, self-concern, isolation and absence of intimacy
integrity vs. despair
integrity = sense that life has been productive and worthwhile, acceptance of place in life cycle
despair = loss of hope, misanthropy and disgust, fear of death
Piaget's Cognitive Development Levels
Piaget development levels
Critical achievement by the end of Piaget's sensorymotor stage
Objects have an existence outside of the child's involvment with them
Expression of mental symbols and words
Characteristics of the preoperational stage
Immanent justice - punishment for bad is immanent
Egocentrism - child sees self as center of universe
Phenomenalistic causality - events that occur together appear to cause one another
Animistic thinking - physical objects gain feelings and intentions
Concrete operations stage
Conservation - flat ball of clay is same amount of clay as was in a ball
reversibility - ice can become water and vice versa
Formal stage
Abstract thought